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WWII Timeline – Fall 1943

I’m continuing my WWII Timeline series with a look at October – December 1943 in this post.

A Timeline of WWII, Fall 1943

October 1943

The Danish Underground movement transported over 7,200 Danish Jews to safety in Sweden by sea.

October 1, 1943

The Allies entered Naples, Italy.

October 4, 1943

Heinrich Himmler, who was appointed chief of the German Police (SS) in 1936, delivered a speech about the “Final Solution” to SS Group leaders at Posen, saying in part,

…It is one of those things which is easy to say. ‘The Jewish race is to be exterminated,’ says every party member. ‘That’s clear, it’s part of our program, elimination of the Jews, extermination, right, we’ll do it.’ And then they all come along, the eighty million good Germans, and each one has his decent Jew. Of course the others are swine, but this one is a first-class Jew. Of all those who talk like this, not one has watched, not one has stood up to it. Most of you know what it means to see a hundred corpses lying together, five hundred, or a thousand. To have gone through this and yet – apart from a few exceptions, examples of human weakness – to have remained decent fellows, this is what has made us hard.

We have taken from them what wealth they had. I have issued a strict order, which SS-Obergruppenführer Pohl has carried out, that this wealth should, as a matter of course, be handed over to the Reich without reserve.

We had the moral right, we had the duty to our people, to destroy this people which wanted to destroy us. Altogether, however, we can say that we have fulfilled this most difficult duty for the love of our people. And our spirit, our soul, our character has not suffered injury from it.

October 7, 1943

The Japanese executed approximately one hundred American POW’s on Wake Island.

October 13, 1943

Italy declared war on Germany.

October 14, 1943

Jews and Soviet POW’s broke out of the Sobibor extermination camp. At the time, three hundred made it into the woods, but only fifty of those would survive. Afterwards, exterminations at Sobibor ceased, but over 250,000 had already been murdered. All traces of the camp were removed and trees were planted.

The second American air raid on Schweinfurt was carried out at the culmination of seven days of intense Allied bombing. More than 3,000 Airmen took part in 8th AF Mission 115/384th Bomb Group Mission 32. The mission, also known as Black Thursday, was to destroy Schweinfurt’s ball bearings factory.

According to the Mission Comments on 384thBombGroup.com,

The 384th Bombardment Group (H) put up three squadrons on today’s mission. However, six aircraft aborted, reducing the number that bombed the primary target. A further six aircraft were knocked out by enemy action. An all-too-familiar situation faced the returning crews – bad weather over East Anglia. Three Aircraft were lost when the crews, unable to locate a suitable place to land in England, bailed out and abandoned them, while most of the remainder landed at other airfields.

October 16, 1943

Jews were rounded up in Rome, Italy, with over one thousand sent to Auschwitz.

October 25, 1943

The Japanese opened the Burma-Siam railway, also known as the Death Railway. It was 258 miles (415 km) long and ran between Ban Pong, Thailand and Thanbyuzayat, Burma. It was built to support the Japanese Empire forces in the Burma Campaign of WWII. The railroad was built with Southeast Asian civilian laborers and about 61,000 forced Allied POW laborers. It was called the Death Railway because about 90,000 civilian and 12,000 Allied prisoner laborers died during the construction.

October 26, 1943

Japanese Emperor Hirohito stated that the United States was “rising from its defeat” at the beginning of the war and that Japan’s military situation was now “truly grave.”

November 1943

The Riga, Latvia Ghetto was liquidated.

The U.S. Congress held hearings regarding the U.S. State Department’s inaction regarding European Jews despite the many reports of mass extermination.

November 1, 1943

U.S. Marines invaded Bougainville in the Solomon Islands.

November 1-2, 1943

A naval battle (which was a result of Allied landings on Bougainville), called the Battle of Empress Augusta Bay, also known as Operation Cherry Blossom, was fought near the island of Bougainville in Empress Augusta Bay in the Soloman Islands.

November 3-4, 1943

The Nazis (the SS, the Order Police battalions, and the Ukrainian Sonderdienst) murdered 42,000 to 43,000 Jews at the Majdanek, Poniatowa and Trawniki concentration camps in occupied Poland during Operation Harvest Festival.

November 4, 1943

The Nazi newspaper, Der Stürmer, published by Julius Streicher, reported,

It is actually true that the Jews have, so to speak, disappeared from Europe and that the Jewish ‘Reservoir of the East’ from which the Jewish pestilence has for centuries beset the peoples of Europe has ceased to exist. But the Führer of the German people at the beginning of the war prophesied what has now come to pass.

The U.S. began to manufacture plutonium at a reactor facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

November 6, 1943

Soviet troops recaptured Kiev in the Ukraine.

November 11, 1943

Auschwitz Kommandant Rudolf Höss was promoted to chief inspector of concentration camps. The new Kommandant, Arthur Liebehenschel, divided up the Auschwitz complex of over 30 sub-camps into three main sections.

November 15, 1943

Nazi SS Chief Heinrich Himmler ordered all Roma people (often referred to as Gypsies) in Germany to be deported to concentration or death camps.

November 18/19, 1943

The first British Bomber Command air raid in the Battle of Berlin was carried out overnight. The RAF attacked Berlin with 440 Avro Lancaster heavy bombers and four de Havilland Mosquitos. Due to heavy cloud cover the damage was not severe.

November 20, 1943

U.S. troops invaded Makin and Tarawa in the Gilbert Islands.

November 22 – 26, 1943

American President Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Churchill, and Chinese leader Chiang Kai-shek met in Eqypt for the Cairo Conference to discuss strategy for the Burma front. They outlined the Allied position against Japan and announced that all areas seized by Japan since 1894 would be returned to the former owners.

November 23, 1943

Japanese resistance ended on Makin and Tarawa.

November 28 – December 1, 1943

The Big Three – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet Union leader Josef Stalin – met at the Tehran Conference in Tehran, Iran.  Topics during the four-day conference included:

  • Confirmation of the decision for the U.S. and Britain to invade Western Europe (a “Second Front”) in the Spring of 1944
  • Plans for the invasion of Southern France
  • A promise by Stalin to join in the war against Japan when Germany was defeated

December 2, 1943

The first transport of Jews from Vienna arrived at Auschwitz.

December 12, 1943

Adolf Hitler sent Nazi General Erwin Rommel (the “Desert Fox”) to mobilize forces along the French coast at Normandy to defend against the anticipated Allied invasion.

December 15, 1943

American troops landed on the Arawe Peninsula of New Britain in the Solomon Islands.

December 16, 1943

The chief surgeon at Auschwitz reported the completion of 106 castration operations.

December 17, 1943

President Roosevelt signed the Magnuson Act in gratitude for Chinese assistance in the Pacific Theater. The Magnuson Act repealed the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act and allowed for limited Chinese immigration to the United States.

December 24, 1943

Allied commanders of the “Second Front” were announced: American General Dwight D. Eisenhower as Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force and British General Sir Bernard Montgomery as the Commander-in-Chief of the 21st Army Group.

December 24-26, 1943

The Soviets launched offensives on the Ukrainian front.

December 26, 1943

1st Division Marines invaded Cape Gloucester in a full Allied assault on New Britain in the Solomon Islands.

Sources:

This series of posts is based on a compilation of timelines from:

The Holocaust Encyclopedia

The History Place:

The National WWII Museum Interactive Timeline

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

World War II Chronicle by the Editors of Publications International, Ltd.

Heinrich Himmler’s Speech at Posen

384th Bomb Group: Second Schweinfurt Raid/Black Thursday

Wikipedia: Magnuson Act

Most recent post from the series:

Summer 1943

© Cindy Farrar Bryan and The Arrowhead Club, 2020

WWII Timeline – Summer 1943

I’m continuing my WWII Timeline series with a look at July – September 1943 in this post.

A Timeline of WWII, Summer 1943

July 5, 1943

The Germans launched a massive tank offensive called “Operation Citadel” near Kursk in the Soviet Union. It was the largest tank battle in history. The operation ended with a Soviet victory.

A U.S. B-17 bomber crew accidentally bombed Boise City, Oklahoma when the pilots performing target practice mistook the lights on the town square for their training target. Only practice bombs were used and the square was empty at the time (12:30 a.m). There were no fatalities.

July 8, 1943

B-24 Liberators flying from Midway Island bombed the Japanese on Wake Island.

July 9/10, 1943

The Allied invasion called “Operation Husky” began when US and British troops landed on the Italian island of Sicily.

July 19, 1943

The Allies bombed Rome.

July 22, 1943

The Americans, led by General George S. Patton and the U.S. 7th Army captured Palermo, Sicily.

July 24, 1943

The British carried out a bombing raid on Hamburg.

July 25, 1943 

Italian Marshal Pietro Badoglio formed a new government in Italy after the Fascist regime in Italy ended upon the deposition and arrest of Benito Mussolini.

July 27/28, 1943

An Allied air raid caused a firestorm in Hamburg.

August 1943

Exterminations ceased at the Treblinka extermination camp after an estimated 870,000 deaths.

August 1-2, 1944

A group of fifteen American PT boats attempted to block Japanese convoys south of Kolombangra Island in the Solomon Islands. PT-109, which was commanded by future American President, then Lieutenant, John F. Kennedy, was rammed and sunk by the Japanese Cruiser AMAGIRI, resulting in two killed and others badly injured. The remaining crew survived, including one badly injured man who Kennedy aided by towing him to a nearby atoll.

August 2, 1943

During an uprising at the Treblinka extermination camp, Jewish prisoners destroyed the camp’s gas chambers and two hundred Jews escaped. The Nazis hunted down the escapees one by one.

August 6, 1943

The Battle of Vella Lavella, an island in the Solomon Islands, between the Japanese and Allied forces from New Zealand and the United States began.

August 12-17, 1943

The Allies gained control of Sicily as the Germans evacuated.

August 16, 1943

The Bialystok, Poland Ghetto was liquidated. Remaining inhabitants were sent to the death camps at Majdanek and Treblinka.

August 17, 1943

In “Operation Husky,” the Allies reached Messina, Sicily.

The Americans held daylight air raids on Regensburg and Schweinfurt in Germany, known to the 8th Air Force as the “First Schweinfurt” mission. According to the Mission Comments on 384thBombGroup.com,

The 384th Bombardment Group (H) flew as the low group of the 202nd Provisional Combat Bomb Wing on today’s mission. The mission was planned as a ‘Double Strike’ against Schweinfurt-Regensburg industrial plants. [Note: contrary to the implication in naming the raid, Schweinfurt and Regensburg are not neighboring cities; they are, in fact, over 100 miles apart.] The first air strike task force was supplied by the 4th Bomb Wing, which took off late due to heavy fog: they could still reach Africa by dark, but just barely. The second task force – the 1st Bomb Wing, including the 384th BG – was scheduled to take off 90-minutes after the 4th BW, to ensure the enemy fighters had exhausted their fuel and would be limited in their ability to mount a defense. In the event, the 1st BW was repeatedly delayed, also by weather, for almost four hours, allowing the enemy pilots ample time to refuel, rearm (and have a meal, if they wished!). As a consequence, losses were heavy. Both forces, however, inflicted enormous damage on their assigned targets, but the cost was immense.

August 19, 1943

Klaus Fuchs, a Soviet spy, joined the Manhattan Project.

August 23, 1943

Soviet troops recaptured Kharkov.

August 25, 1943

The Allies completed the occupation of New Georgia.

August 28, 1943

Japanese resistance on New Guinea ended.

September 1943

The Vilna and Minsk Ghettos were liquidated.

September 4, 1943

The Allies recaptured Lae-Salamaua, New Guinea.

September 8, 1943 

German forces rushed to Italy as Italy’s Badoglio government unconditionally surrendered to the Allies.

September 9, 1943

The Allies landed on the beaches of Salerno, Italy near Naples, and at Taranto, Italy.

September 11, 1943

The Germans seized control of and occupied Rome, and central and northern Italy, which contained about 35,000 Jews.

Jewish family transports from Theresienstadt (a concentration camp/ghetto established by the SS in the fortress town of Terezín, located in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia) to Auschwitz began.

September 12, 1943

German paratroopers/commandos freed Benito Mussolini from imprisonment.

September 13, 1943

The Chinese Parliament elected General Chiang Kai-shek president of the Chinese Republic.

September 20, 1943

From September 20 into October 1943, approximately 7,200 Danish Jews escaped to Sweden with the help of the Danish resistance movement.

September 23, 1943

The Germans established a puppet Fascist regime under Mussolini in Italy.

Sources:

This series of posts is based on a compilation of timelines from:

The Holocaust Encyclopedia

The History Place:

The National WWII Museum Interactive Timeline

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

World War II Chronicle by the Editors of Publications International, Ltd.

384th Bomb Group: First Schweinfurt Raid

Most recent post from the series:

Spring 1943

© Cindy Farrar Bryan and The Arrowhead Club, 2020

WWII Timeline – Spring 1943

I’m continuing my WWII Timeline series with a look at April – June 1943 in this post.

A Timeline of WWII, Spring 1943

April 4, 1943

A newly built gas chamber and Crematoria V became operational at Auschwitz.

April 6/7, 1943

Axis forces in Tunisia began withdrawing toward Enfidaville, in northeastern Tunisia, from American and British forces.

April 9, 1943

Exterminations at the Chelmno termination camp temporarily ceased, although it would be reactivated in the spring of 1944.

April 18, 1943

Japanese Fleet Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto was shot down and killed by American P-38’s over the Solomon Islands after U.S. code breakers were able to locate him flying in a Japanese bomber near Bougainville. (Yamamoto planned and executed the attack on Pearl Harbor).

April 19-30

Representatives from the United States and Britain met in Hamilton, Bermuda for the Bermuda Conference. They discussed Jewish refugees from Nazi-occupied countries, but declined any assistance to those liberated by the Allies or those who still remained under Nazi control.

April 19, 1943

In the spring of 1943, Heinrich Himmler, Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (SS), ordered the SS to conduct a “special action” against the Jews remaining in the Warsaw Ghetto to clear it out.

On April 19, the Waffen SS (the military rather than the domestic branch of the SS) launched a major attack against the Jewish resistance in the Warsaw Ghetto. It was a Monday and was the eve of Passover. Twelve hundred Jews armed with pistols, rifles, a few machine guns, grenades, and Molotov cocktails (which had been smuggled into the ghetto) were attacked by over two thousand of SS General Jürgen Stroop’s Waffen SS soldiers, heavily armed with tanks, artillery, and flame throwers.

The first attack left twelve Nazis dead and the Jewish fighters escaped capture by retreating through hidden passageways, cellars, and sewers. By the fifth day, SS General Stroop, on the orders of Himmler, decided to burn the entire ghetto. The Jews in Warsaw managed to resist for a total of twenty-eight days.

April 21, 1943

American President Franklin Roosevelt announced that the Japanese had executed several airmen from the Doolittle Raid (aka the Tokyo Raid, the air raid of April 18, 1942 by the United States on the Japanese capital of Tokyo, led by Lieutenant Colonel James Doolittle).

April 22, 1943

Japan announced that captured Allied pilots will be given “one way tickets to hell.”

April 30, 1943

The British launched Operation Mincemeat. In the operation, a corpse was dressed as a British military officer carrying fake war plans and released off the coast of Spain. He was given the identity of Major William Martin of Britain’s Royal Marines. The fake plans indicated that the Allies would attack Greece and Sardinia rather than Sicily as expected. The ruse successfully diverted Axis defenses.

May 1943

SS doctor Josef Mengele, who would perform deadly experiments on prisoners, arrived at Auschwitz Concentration Camp.

May 1, 1943

In May of 1943, known as “Black May,” the Allies sank thirty-eight German U-boats. It was considered a turning point in the Battle of the Atlantic.

May 7, 1943

The Allies took Tunisia.

May 10, 1943

U.S. Troops invaded the Japanese-held island of Attu in Alaska’s Aleutian Islands.

May 13, 1943

German and Italian troops of the Axis powers surrendered to the Allies in Tunisia, bringing an end to the North African campaign.

May 14, 1943

A Japanese submarine sank Australian hospital ship Centaur off the coast of Queensland, Australia. Of the 332 medical personnel and civilian crew aboard, 268 died (299 in another report), including 63 of the 65 army personnel aboard.

May 16, 1943

Jewish resistance in the Warsaw Ghetto ended. SS General Jürgen Stroop reported,

The former Jewish quarter of Warsaw is no longer in existence. The large scale action was terminated at 2015 hours by blowing up the Warsaw synagogue…Total number of Jews dealt with: 56,065, including both Jews caught and Jews whose extermination can be proved.

Polish sources estimated that in the uprising, three hundred Germans were killed and one thousand were wounded.

May 16/17, 1943

The British carried out an air raid on the Ruhr.

May 19, 1943

The Nazis declared Berlin to be Judenfrei (cleansed of Jews).

May 22, 1943

Supreme Command of the German Navy, Admiral Karl Dönitz, suspended U-boat operations in the North Atlantic.

May 31, 1943

The Japanese ended their occupation of Alaska’s Aleutian Islands when the U.S. completed the capture of Attu.

June 1, 1943

The United States began submarine warfare against Japanese shipping.

June 3, 1943

Actor Leslie Howard, who played Ashley Wilkes in the movie Gone with the Wind, was aboard a plane shot down by the German Luftwaffe over the Bay of Biscay and killed along with sixteen others aboard. The Times (British daily national newspaper based in London) reported the news of Howard’s death and the death of Major William Martin (the fake name given to the corpse in Operation Mincement) in the same issue.

June 10, 1943

Operation Pointblank (or the Pointblank Directive) was issued regarding Allied bombing strategy. It ordered the Eighth Air Force (of which my dad would become a member in the 384th Bomb Group) to destroy the German aviation industry and gain air superiority over the continent of Europe.

June 11, 1943

SS Reichsführer Heinrich Himmler ordered the liquidation, or destruction, of all Jewish ghettos in occupied Poland.

June 21, 1943

The Allies advanced to New Georgia in the Solomon Islands.

June 25, 1943

A newly built gas chamber and Crematory III became operational at Auschwitz. With its completion, the four new crematories at Auschwitz had a daily capacity of 4,756 bodies.

June 30, 1943

The U.S. launched Operation Cartwheel, a combined operation by Supreme Allied Commander in the South West Pacific Area (SWPA) General Douglas MacArthur, and United States Navy Admiral William F. Halsey, Jr., then in command of the South Pacific Area, to neutralize the Japanese base on Rabaul.

Sources:

This series of posts is based on a compilation of timelines from:

The Holocaust Encyclopedia

The History Place:

The National WWII Museum Interactive Timeline

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

World War II Chronicle by the Editors of Publications International, Ltd.

Auschwitz Concentration Camp: The Gas Chambers and Crematoria

The Warsaw Ghetto

Operation Mincemeat

Most recent post from the series:

Winter 1943

© Cindy Farrar Bryan and The Arrowhead Club, 2020

WWII Timeline – Winter 1943

I’m continuing my WWII Timeline series with a look at January – March 1943 in this post.

A Timeline of WWII, Winter 1943

1943

The Nazi SS Einsatzgruppen passed the one million mark in number of Jews murdered. Slave laborers were used to dig up the buried bodies and burn them to remove all traces of the crime.

January 2, 1943

The Allies took Buna in New Guinea in the War in the Pacific. 

January 2/3, 1943

The Germans began to withdraw from the Caucasus (also known as Caucasia), an area located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, and mainly occupied by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Russia.

January 10, 1943

The Soviets began an offensive against the Germans in Stalingrad, Russia.

January 14-24, 1943

Both US President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill attended the Casablanca Conference at the Anfa Hotel in Casablanca, Morocco to plan the Allies’ European strategy for the next phase of World War II.

Roosevelt announced the war could only end with  the unconditional surrender of Germany, Italy, and Japan, which Churchill endorsed.

Generals Charles de Gaulle and Henri Giraud also attended, representing the Free French forces, but Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin declined due to the ongoing Battle of Stalingrad.

January 18, 1943

Jews in the Warsaw (Poland) Ghetto began their first resistance in an uprising after realizing that “resettlement” was a German ruse to lead them to their deaths.

January 22, 1943

The Allies defeated the Japanese at Sanananda on New Guinea.

January 23, 1943

General Bernard Montgomery’s British Eighth Army took Tripoli in North Africa.

January 27, 1943

The US Eighth Army Air Force conducted its first bombing raid from bases in England against Germany. The target was the port of Wilhelmshaven.

January 29, 1943

The Nazis ordered the arrest of all Gypsies and sent them to extermination camps.

January 30, 1943

Senior Nazi official Ernst Kaltenbrunner succeeded Reinhard Heydrich, who had been assassinated in June 1942, as head of the RSHA (Reichssicherheitshauptamt, the Reich Main Security Office).

February 1943

The Romanian government proposed the transfer of 70,000 Jews to Palestine to the Allies, but Britain and the US did not respond.

Greek Jews were ordered into ghettos.

February 1, 1943

Japan began the evacuation of Guadalcanal.

February 2, 1943

After the capture of German commanding officer Field Marshall Friedrich Paulus on January 31, the remainder of his 6th Army surrendered to the Soviets in Stalingrad. It was the first big defeat of Hitler’s armies.

February 8, 1943

In Burma, also known as Myanmar, in Southeast Asia, British-Indian forces began guerrilla operations against the Japanese.

February 9, 1943

The Japanese resistance on Guadalcanal ended.

February 14-25, 1943

The Battle of Kasserine Pass, between US 1st Armored Division and German Panzers, took place in Tunisia, North Africa. Kasserine Pass is a two-mile-wide gap in the Grand Dorsal chain of the Atlas Mountains.

February 16, 1943

The Soviets recaptured Kharkov.

February 18, 1943

The Nazis arrested the White Rose resistance leaders in Munich. The White Rose group was a non-violent, intellectual group of students who attended the University of Munich.

In Oak Ridge, Tennessee, construction began on a uranium enrichment facility.

A prototype of Boeing’s B-29 Superfortress bomber that took off from Boeing Field in Seattle crashed into the Frye Packing Plant. The crew of eleven and nineteen of the meat-processing factory workers perished. Although the event could not be concealed, the identity of the aircraft (which was the type to later drop the first atomic bombs on Japan, the Enola Gay) remained classified until the end of World War II.

February 22, 1943

White Rose anti-Nazi resistance leaders Christoph Probst and Hans and Sophie Scholl were tried and sentenced to death by guillotine. Their sentences were carried out that day at Stadelheim Prison in Munich.

February 251943

Twenty-four hour or “round-the-clock” bombing schedule started with USAAF planes bombing Germany in the daytime while the RAF bombed at night.

February 27, 1943

Jews working in the Berlin armaments industry were sent to Auschwitz.

March 1943

The deportation of Greek Jews to Auschwitz began and lasted until August, totaling 49,900 persons.

March 1, 1943

American Jews held a rally at Madison Square Garden in New York City with hopes of pressuring the U.S. government to help the Jews of Europe.

The U.S. began processed food rationing.

March 2, 1943

German forces began their withdrawal from Tunisia, Africa.

March 2-4, 1943

Aircraft of the US Fifth Air Force and Royal Australian Air Force attacked a Japanese convoy moving troops to Lae, New Guinea, defeating the Japanese in the Battle of the Bismarck Sea in the southwest Pacific.

March 13, 1943

An attempt on Adolf Hitler’s life failed when a bomb made of plastic explosives failed.

March 14, 1943

Between June 1942 and March 1943, the Jewish Krakow Ghetto was liquidated with inhabitants either killed in the streets, sent to the Płaszów slave-labor camp, Auschwitz concentration camp, or Belzec extermination camp.

March 15, 1943

German forces re-captured Kharkov, the second largest city in the Ukraine (also known as Kharkiv), from the Soviets.

March 16-20, 1943

At the climax of the Battle of the Atlantic, twenty-seven merchant ships were sunk by German U-boats, Unterseeboot (undersea boat/German submarines) in one week.

March 21, 1943

Another attempt on Adolf Hitler’s life, this time by suicide bomber, failed when Hitler left the area before the bomb could be detonated.

March 17, 1943

Bulgaria openly opposed deportation of its Jews.

March 20-28, 1943

General Bernard Montgomery’s British Eighth Army broke through the Mareth Line in Tunisia, Africa.

March 22, 1943

Gas chamber and Crematoria IV became operational at Auschwitz.

March 31, 1943

Gas chamber and Crematoria II became operational at Auschwitz.

Sources:

This series of posts is based on a compilation of timelines from:

The Holocaust Encyclopedia

The History Place:

The National WWII Museum Interactive Timeline

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

World War II Chronicle by the Editors of Publications International, Ltd.

Wikipedia:  Krakow Ghetto

Auschwitz Concentration Camp: The Gas Chambers and Crematoria

B-29 Prototype Crash

Plots to Kill Hitler

Most recent post from the series:

Fall 1942

© Cindy Farrar Bryan and The Arrowhead Club, 2020