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WWII Timeline – Fall 1938

I’m continuing my WWII Timeline series with a look at October – December 1938 in this post.

A Timeline of WWII, Fall 1938

October 1, 1938

Nazi troops began the occupation of the Sudetenland and the Czech government resigned. The Sudetenland was the portion of Czechoslovakia inhabited by over three million Sudeten Germans, many of which became Nazis and strongly supported Hitler’s acquisition.

October 3, 1938

The Nazi Decree on the Confiscation of Jewish Property regulated the transfer of assets from Jews to non-Jews in Germany.

October 5, 1938

The Reich Ministry of the Interior invalidated all German passports held by Jews. Jews were required to surrender their old passports, which only become valid again after a large red letter “J” had been stamped on them.

October 28, 1938

The Nazis arrested 17,000 Jews of Polish nationality living in Germany, then expelled them back to Poland, transporting them by rail in boxcars. Poland refused them entry, leaving them in a no-man’s land near the Polish border for several months.

November 4, 1938

Japan declared the Nine Powers Treaty of 1922 (which guaranteed China’s independence) obsolete.

November 7, 1938

Herschel Grynszpan, the seventeen year old son of one of the deported Jews (see October 28, 1938), shot and mortally wounded Ernst vom Rath, the Third Secretary in the German Embassy in Paris.

November 9/10, 1938

Ernst vom Rath died on November 9, 1938, two days after Herschel Grynszpan shot and wounded him. In retaliation for vom Rath’s death, the Nazis coordinated a massive attack on Jews throughout the German Reich. It began on the night of November 9, 1938 and lasted into the next day. The attack is known as the Night of Broken Glass, or Kristallnacht.

The shooting was the perfect excuse for Adolf Hitler and Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels to incite Germany to “rise in bloody vengeance against the Jews.” Nazi storm troopers, members of the SS, and the Hitler Youth vandalized Jewish homes, beat and murdered Jewish men, and brutalized Jewish women and children. Thousands of (estimated to be 25,000) male Jewish survivors were later sent to concentration camps.

The German police and crowds of spectators did not attempt to stop any of the violence. In Germany, Austria, and other areas controlled by the Nazis, Jewish businesses were destroyed. Synagogues were vandalized and sacred Torah scrolls were desecrated. Hundreds of synagogues were burned without any rescue effort from local fire departments.

November 12, 1938

At a Nazi meeting regarding the economic impact of the damage as a result of Kristallnacht, which included Hermann Göring and Joseph Goebbels, SS leader Reinhard Heydrich reported 7500 Jewish businesses destroyed, 177 synagogues destroyed out of 267 burned, and 91 Jews killed.

Goebbels proclaimed the burned out synagogues would be turned into parking lots after he forced the Jews to clean up the debris.

Göring declared the Jews would be billed for the damage and that any insurance money they received would be taken by the State. He imposed a fine on the Jews of one billion marks for damages related to Kristallnacht, damages which the Nazis themselves had caused.

Heydrich requested new decrees barring Jews from any contact with Germans, excluding them from public transportation, schools, and hospitals. His aim was to force them into ghettos or out of the country.

The Nazi “Decree on the Exclusion of Jews from German Economic Life” closed all Jewish-owned businesses. It barred Jews from operating retail stores, sales agencies, from carrying on a trade, and from selling goods or services at an establishment of any kind. All Jewish property and enterprises would be transferred to ‘Aryans.’ Jews would receive minimal compensation in the form of bonds.

Göring threatened “a final reckoning with the Jews” if Germany should become involved in a war, and closed the meeting with, “Incidentally, I would like to say that I would not like to be a Jew in Germany.”

November 15, 1938

The Reich Ministry of Education expelled all Jewish children from German public schools. The were allowed to only attend special Jewish schools.

November 16, 1938

The United States recalled its ambassador to Germany, Hugh R. Wilson, permanently.

November 28, 1938

The Reich Ministry of the Interior restricted the freedom of the movement of Jews.

November 29, 1938

The Reich Ministry of the Interior forbid Jews to keep carrier pigeons.

December 3, 1938

The Nazis enacted a law for the compulsory Aryanization of all Jewish businesses, a process involving the dismissal of Jewish workers and managers, as well as the transfer of companies and enterprises to non-Jewish Germans, who bought them at prices officially fixed well below market value.

December 14, 1938

Hermann Göring took the helm of resolving the “Jewish Question.”

The Executive Order on the Law on the Organization of National Work canceled all state contracts held with Jewish-owned firms.

December 21, 1938

The Nazi Law on Midwives banned all Jews from the profession.

December 1938 – September 1939

In a rescue effort known as the Children’s Transport, or Kindertransport, during the nine months before the beginning of WWII, the United Kingdom took in nearly ten thousand unaccompanied Jewish children from Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, and the free city of Danzig.

Sources:

This series of posts is based on a compilation of timelines from:

The Holocaust Encyclopedia

The History Place:

The National WWII Museum Interactive Timeline

Antisemitic Legislation 1933 – 1939

Anti-Jewish Legislation in Prewar Germany

World War II Chronicle by the Editors of Publications International, Ltd.

Wikipedia:  Hugh R. Wilson

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

Most recent post from the series:

Summer 1938

© Cindy Farrar Bryan and The Arrowhead Club, 2019

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WWII Timeline – Summer 1938

I’m continuing my WWII Timeline series with a look at July – September 1938 in this post.

A Timeline of WWII, Summer 1938

July 6, 1938

The Nazis prohibited Jews from trading and providing a variety of specified commercial services.

July 6 – 15, 1938

Delegates from thirty-two nations attended the Evian conference to discuss Jewish refugees fleeing persecution by Nazi German. The conference ended with no resolution passed condemning German anti-Semitic policies. Most, including the U.S., refused to relax their immigration restrictions and no country would accept them.

July 11, 1938

The Reich Ministry of the Interior banned Jews from health spas.

July 23, 1938

The Nazis ordered Jews over the age of 15 to apply for identity cards from the police, to be shown on demand to any police officer.

July 25, 1938

The Nazis prohibited Jewish doctors from practicing medicine.

August 3, 1938

Italy enacted sweeping anti-Semitic laws.

August 11, 1938

The Nazis destroyed the synagogue in Nuremberg.

August 12, 1938

The German military mobilized.

August 17, 1938

The Nazi Executive Order on the Law on the Alteration of Family and Personal Names required Jews bearing first names of “non-Jewish” origin to adopt an additional name. Men would add “Israel” and women would add “Sara” to their names on all legal documents.

August 18, 1938

German General Ludwig Beck resigned as chief of the German General Staff in protest of Hitler’s overtly militaristic policies.

September 27, 1938

The Nazis prohibited Jews from all legal practices.

September 29, 1938
Germany, Italy, Great Britain, and France signed the Munich agreement, or “Munich Betrayal.” Adolf Hitler had threatened a European war unless the Sudetenland, a border area of Czechoslovakia containing an ethnic German majority, was surrendered to Germany. The leaders of Britain, France, and Italy agreed in exchange for a pledge of peace from Hitler.

Sources:

This series of posts is based on a compilation of timelines from:

The Holocaust Encyclopedia

The History Place:

The National WWII Museum Interactive Timeline

Antisemitic Legislation 1933 – 1939

World War II Chronicle by the Editors of Publications International, Ltd.

Most recent post from the series:

Spring 1938

© Cindy Farrar Bryan and The Arrowhead Club, 2019

WWII Timeline – Spring 1938

I’m continuing my WWII Timeline series with a look at April – June 1938 in this post.

A Timeline of WWII, Spring 1938

April 22, 1938

The Decree against the Camouflage of Jewish Firms forbid changing the names of Jewish-owned businesses, i.e., changing the business name to give the appearance that the business was Aryan-owned and disguise that the business was Jewish-owned.

In Nazism, “Aryan” designated a supposed master race of non-Jewish Caucasians usually having Nordic features.

April 26, 1938

The Nazis ordered Jews to register wealth and property. The Order for the Disclosure of Jewish Assets required Jews to report all property in excess of 5,000 Reichsmarks.

June 1938

The Chinese military leader Chiang Kai-shek ordered the dikes along China’s Yellow River destroyed. The result of this attempt to slow down a Japanese invasion was the destruction of more than four thousand cities, towns, and villages, leaving two million Chinese homeless, and a devastating famine ensued.

June 14, 1938

The Nazis ordered businesses owned or run by Jews to be registered and marked as Jewish.

Sources:

This series of posts is based on a compilation of timelines from:

The Holocaust Encyclopedia

The History Place:

The National WWII Museum Interactive Timeline

Antisemitic Legislation 1933 – 1939

World War II Chronicle by the Editors of Publications International, Ltd.

Most recent post from the series:

Winter 1938

© Cindy Farrar Bryan and The Arrowhead Club, 2019

WWII Timeline – Winter 1938

I’m continuing my WWII Timeline series with a look at January – March 1938 in this post.

A Timeline of WWII, Winter 1938

January 5, 1938

The Nazi Law on the Alteration of Family and Personal Names forbid Jews from changing their names.

January 28, 1938

President Roosevelt called for a massive rearmament program for the U.S.

February 1938

Adolf Hitler bullied Austrian Chancellor Kurt von Schuschnigg into giving him control of Austria’s interior ministry.

February 4, 1938

Adolf Hitler became commander-in-chief of the German armed forces, the Wehrmacht, and the German war minister.

February 5, 1938

The Nazi Law on the Profession of Auctioneer excluded Jews from the profession.

March 12, 1938
Germany announced Anschluss, a union with or annexation of Austria, which had a population of 200,000 Jews, most living in Vienna. Nazi troops entered Austria and began arresting and publicly humiliating the Austrian Jews, making them perform tasks such as getting on their hands and knees and scrubbing the pavement.

March 13, 1938

The new Nazi government in Vienna declared Austria a province of the Greater German Reich.

March 18, 1938

The Nazi Gun Law banned Jewish gun merchants.

Late March 1938

The SS was placed in charge of Jewish affairs in Austria and Adolf Eichmann established an Office for Jewish Emigration in Vienna.

Two weeks after the Anschluss, the National Socialist Gauleiter (regional head) of Upper Austria, August Eigruber, announced the building of a concentration camp at the town of Mauthausen on the Danube. Political opponents and those considered criminal or antisocial would be imprisoned at Mauthausen and forced to work in the granite quarries.

March 24 – April 7, 1938

Japan’s first military defeat in modern history occurred during the Battle of Taierzhuang. The Chinese killed approximately 16,000 Japanese soldiers during the two-week battle.

Sources:

This series of posts is based on a compilation of timelines from:

The Holocaust Encyclopedia

The History Place:

The National WWII Museum Interactive Timeline

The Mauthausen Concentration Camp

Antisemitic Legislation 1933 – 1939

World War II Chronicle by the Editors of Publications International, Ltd.

Most recent post from the series:

Fall 1937

© Cindy Farrar Bryan and The Arrowhead Club, 2019