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Laurie Newbold of Belton, Leicestershire, England

First, a recap…

In August, I wrote about an aspect of the WWII Black March of prisoners of war of Stalag Luft IV, the Combine. My father, George Edwin Farrar, who was a waist gunner in the 384th Bomb Group based in Grafton Underwood, England, was one of the prisoners on the March. Dad’s B-17 went down on September 28, 1944 and after a lengthy hospital stay, he was placed in Stalag Luft IV around Thanksgiving.

I have found that when the prisoners of Stalag Luft IV were marched out of the prison camp on February 6, 1945, Dad, RAF airman Laurie Newbold, and 351st Bomb Group waist gunner Cecil McWhorter likely made up a three-man combine. I learned of these men through a letter Laurie Newbold sent Dad on July 15, 1946.

I wanted to know more about the two men my dad spent his darkest days with in the prison camp and on the March. I have already researched and written about the man I learned was “Old Mac Whorter.” He was Cecil Carlton McWhorter and you can read more about him in these previous posts, Cecil Carlton McWhorter –

…End of recap

My search for Laurie Newbold began with his letter. I had his address, 6 Forest View Cottages, Belton, NR Loughborough, Leicestershire, England. Belton is a parish, or small village, in the district of North West Leicestershire in England. A Google Maps search today does not find “6 Forest View Cottages” in Belton.

I learned a few other things from the letter. Laurie was married and his wife’s father ran the local pub. Laurie had one son before his war service. And after he returned home from the war, he had a second son.

In an internet search, I recently found a pub in Belton called “The Queen’s Head Pub.”

Queen’s Head Pub in Belton

The Queen’s Head Pub in Belton, Leicestershire has been a village pub for over 200 years. The building is a historic coaching inn which was built in the 1700’s. It has been a pub since 1800. Now it is a restaurant with a bar and accommodations. The Queen’s Head is situated in the center of the village facing the square. The pub is located at 2 Long Street, Belton, Loughborough, LE12 9TP.

I e-mailed the pub and quickly received a response from Jo Newby, General Manager of the Queen’s Head. Jo did some checking and discovered that I had the correct Belton, England (there are two), but possibly not the right pub. Jo said that there were once two pubs in Belton. The other, the George Hotel, is no longer there, but she thinks it was the George which Laurie Newbold’s father-in-law ran.

Jo found a few folks who remember Lawrence (Laurie) Newbold. A couple of Jo Newby’s regulars at the Queen’s Head, Barry and Mary-Jean, know a lot about Laurie. He was Mary-Jean’s uncle and they lived next door to him. Laurie Newbold had three children, Michael, Stephen, and Janice. Laurie has passed away and so have Michael and Janice. But Stephen is still alive and lives in the adjacent village of Long Whatton.

Jo found an interesting photo hanging on a wall of the Queen’s Head Pub. It is a picture of Laurie Newbold and the Long Whatton and Belton Home Guard. In the photo, Laurie Newbold is standing second from left in the second from top row. I have circled him in the photo.

Lawrence Newbold, second from left in the second from top row
Long Whatton and Belton Home Guard
Photo courtesy of Jo Newby

More internet searches revealed that L.E. (Laurie) Newbold was a Sergeant in the RAF, in the No. 50 Squadron of Bomber Command.  He became a POW on March 18, 1944 when his Avro Lancaster #ED-308 went down on a mission to Frankfurt.

The No. 50 Squadron flew out of RAF Skellingthorpe in Lincoln, England, from November 26,1941 to June 20, 1942 and October 17, 1942 to June 15, 1945. Skellingthorpe was about seventy miles north of Grafton Underwood (where my dad was stationed) and Polebrook (where Cecil McWhorter was stationed).

The Back to Normandy website has a photo of ED-308 and some information about the March 18/19 mission. The site’s publisher, Fred Vogels, wrote,

On Saturday, 18 March 1944, (a part of) the aircraft of the 50 squadron (RAF), took off for a mission to Frankfurt in Germany from a station (airfield) in or near Skellingthorpe.

One of the crew members was Flight Sergeant H J Rouse. He departed for his mission at 19:15.

He flew with a Avro Lancaster (type I, with serial ED308 and code VN-J). His mission and of the other crew members was planned for Sunday, 19 March 1944.

I found a list of the crew aboard ED-308 on March 18, 1944 on the UK’s National Archives website. Once the page opens, scroll down and click Preview an image of this record. Select Image 12 and then go to full screen. About halfway down the page, you will see 18/19 March 1944 in the left column. Zooming in helps immensely. You can view the crew listing and comments even though viewing is obstructed by a water mark. The pilot’s last name is Miller, and fourth line down on Miller’s crew is Sgt. L.E. Newbold.

The Sortie notes state: Bombing Attack on Frankfurt. Aircraft Missing – no signal received.

I’m happy to have learned more about Laurie Newbold and have a photo of him thanks to Jo Newby. Perhaps someday Stephen Newbold and I will be able to meet face to face. I think that if I can look directly into his eyes, I will be able to see the ghost of his father and he will be able to see the ghost of mine, how they appeared seventy-four years ago when they helped each other survive what was probably the most fearful time in their lives, and watched each other waste away from lack of food, illness, and other hardships of marching across Germany, not knowing if they would live to ever see their families again. Stephen Newbold, this is our shared history. The history of our fathers, two survivors of WWII.

© Cindy Farrar Bryan and The Arrowhead Club, 2018

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WWII Timeline – Spring 1935

I’m continuing my WWII Timeline series with a look at April – June 1935 in this post.

A Timeline of WWII, Spring 1935

May 2, 1935

France and Russia signed a mutual assistance treaty which forced Germany into a two-front war. Russia also signed a similar agreement with Czechoslovakia in the same time period.

May 21, 1935

The Nazis banned Jews from serving in the military.

June 26, 1935

The Nazis passed a law allowing forced abortions on women to prevent them from passing on hereditary diseases.

Sources:

This series of posts is based on a compilation of timelines from:

The Holocaust Encyclopedia

The History Place:

The National WWII Museum Interactive Timeline

Wikipedia – Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance

World War II Chronicle by the Editors of Publications International, Ltd.

Most recent post from the series:

Winter 1935

© Cindy Farrar Bryan and The Arrowhead Club, 2018

Cataract Op by Edward Field

In last week’s post, I presented the video of Edward Field’s Veterans History Project interview. In his interview, Edward reads his poem World War II. Edward also mentions another WWII-related poem he wrote, Cataract Op, which he has yet to publish in one of his books. Edward has kindly given me permission to publish it here.

Cataract Op

by Edward Field

It felt so adult, at 83, going by myself to the hospital,
getting on the bus like others (all the young) headed for work
through the morning Manhattan streets
carrying umbrellas and newspapers, disappearing into subways,
lining up at carts for a (careless, cholesterol-rich) paper bag breakfast.

When the bus pulled up at the hospital stop,
I got out and walked in, calm,
like I remember in the war flying into combat
with maybe a touch of nerves, but no great anxiety,
more like excitement.

Then it all went efficiently, the procedures of pre-op,
as I was passed from station to station, each technician doing his job,
like once the squadrons of silver bombers
in wing to wing formation roared through the crystal sky,
each of the crew busy, me at my desk with my instruments
calculating our course and noting in the log
wind drift and speed and altitude,
courteously calling “navigator to crew…,”
to read out our position and estimated time of arrival.

Our goal of the mission that day was the Ruhr,
a land of mines and furnaces, with a cataract of thick black smoke
rising from the factories cranking out anti-aircraft guns
like the ones lobbing up the deadly black bursts at us.

Now I was being wheeled into the hall outside the operating room
where I joined a line of gurneys waiting their turn at the laser,
as the squadrons in stately procession wheeled
in a wide circle around the city, lined up for the bombing run,
the flak peppering the air thickly under us.

Finally, the moment, my moment —
and I was wheeled into the operating room under a spotlight,
my eye taped open, but my mind alert
as the surgeon went to work, the oh-so-delicate work, with his instruments…

and the earlier moment — our squadron’s turn —
we headed in tight formation right into the midst
of the bursting antiaircraft shells,
the bomb bay doors opening with a grinding whine.
Our wings were rocking perilously close to the neighboring planes,
while the pilot fought to keep the heaving plane on course
over the bulls eye of the target below,
and I too was busy, shards of flak rattling off the aluminum walls around me,
my hand jiggling as I recorded in my log
the burning buildings, planes going down, the exact time of…

bombs away —

now to get out of here!

It was over so fast.  The nurse was already taping up my eye
and I was wheeled back into the corridor feeling happy,
as on that day of the mission, we turned on a wing
and wheeled west toward home
with the late sun lighting up the heavenly landscape of clouds,
brighter than I had ever seen before.

Published by permission of the author

© Cindy Farrar Bryan and The Arrowhead Club, 2018 (excluding Cataract Op by Edward Field)

Edward Field Veterans History Project

When poet Edward Field and I visited Washington, D.C. earlier this year to honor Jack Coleman Cook, Edward had the opportunity to sit for a Veterans History Project interview at the Library of Congress. Edward’s friend David Perrotta arranged for fellow Library of Congress staffer Owen Rogers to conduct and record the interview. My husband Bill and I were invited to sit in to watch the proceedings.

Ever so quietly with cell phones muted and seated comfortably out of camera range, we witnessed Edward recount his remarkable story of growing up in pre-WWII America as a gay Jewish man, his wartime service in the Army Air Forces, his post-war return to civilian life, and his journey to become a poet.

Owen Rogers was kind enough to share the recording with me and I was honored to have the opportunity to edit and present Edward Field’s Veterans History Project interview on YouTube.

Edward’s story is eye-opening. It shows us a time in America for which we can only feel shame for the actions of our forebearers upon a young man growing up in a neighborhood in which others felt his family didn’t belong. We see what it meant to be gay and Jewish in a long ago time that seems both so unlike our own time, yet so familiar, too. It is, at times, an emotional story. It is a story told through the heart of a poet.

Aside from being an award-winning poet, Edward Field is a WWII veteran who served as a navigator aboard a B-17 heavy bomber in the 546th Bomb Squadron of the 384th Bombardment Group of the 8th Air Force.

Edward’s Veterans History Project interview was conducted and recorded by Owen E. Rogers, Library of Congress Liaison Specialist, at the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., April 11, 2018.

Video photos courtesy of Edward Field, David Perrotta, Ryan Saylor, Delia Cook McBride, Ray Lustig and Susan Taylor.

Video editor Cindy Farrar Bryan of TheArrowheadClub.com.

Many thanks to Arkansas Congressman Bruce Westerman for honoring Jack Coleman Cook on the Floor of the House of Representatives April 12, 2018.

Links to information and previous The Arrowhead Club posts about Jack Coleman Cook and Edward Field

Next week I will present “Cataract Op,” the unpublished WWII-related poem by Edward Field which he mentions in his Veterans History Project interview.

© Cindy Farrar Bryan and The Arrowhead Club, 2018

WWII Timeline – Winter 1935

I’m continuing my WWII Timeline series with a look at January – March 1935 in this post.

A Timeline of WWII, Winter 1935

January 7, 1935

France entered into a treaty with Italy in an attempt to shield itself from Nazi aggression.

March 16, 1935

Adolf Hitler violated the Treaty of Versailles by introducing military conscription and announced that he would not obey the limits placed on the German military by the treaty.

Sources:

This series of posts is based on a compilation of timelines from:

The Holocaust Encyclopedia

The History Place:

The National WWII Museum Interactive Timeline

Wikipedia – Franco-Italian Agreement of 1935

World War II Chronicle by the Editors of Publications International, Ltd.

Most recent post from the series:

Fall 1934

© Cindy Farrar Bryan and The Arrowhead Club, 2018

Cecil Carlton McWhorter, Part 3 of 3

Cecil Carlton McWhorter, continued..

Read Part 1 here.

Read Part 2 here.

In my search for Cecil Carlton McWhorter and descendants, I also turned to Ancestry.com for personal information.

Cecil was born in Olney, Texas on March 4, 1918. His birth year explains why Laurie Newbold considered Cecil McWhorter “old.” Cecil would have been twenty-seven years old in 1945. Most of the men who made up WWII air crews were in their late teens and early twenties.

In 1930, the United States Census reported that the McWhorter family lived in Throckmorton County, Texas. Cecil’s father was Isaac McWhorter, 51 years old, and was a farmer. Isaac was born in Kentucky as was his father. Isaac’s mother was born in Tennessee. Cecil’s mother was Susan Cloyd McWhorter. She was born in Kentucky as was her mother. Her father was born in Tennessee. Susan was 41 years old in 1930. She and Isaac had been married for 23 years.

Isaac and Susan McWhorter had 5 children living at home in 1930. Albert was 20, Cecil was 12, Martha Dee was 10, Louis Winston was 6, and Eldon Cloyd was 2 1/2. They also had an older daughter, Francis, who was 22 and no longer living at home.

Shortly before being shipped overseas, on May 6, 1944, at age 26, Cecil Carlton McWhorter married Martha Elizabeth Rohner in Highlands County, Florida. At the time, he listed his address as the 399th Bomb Squadron of the 88th Bomb Group, stationed at Avon Park Army Air Field. He listed his occupation as S/Sgt., U.S. Army. Martha’s age was listed as 27, birthplace East Bernstadt, Kentucky.

Oddly, it was Cecil’s marriage license that revealed how and where Cecil served in WWII before he was assigned to the 351st Bomb Group. The 88th Bomb Group was a training unit that was part of the 2nd and 3rd Air Forces and was based in Avon Park, Florida. It was inactivated on May 1, 1944, just five days before Cecil married Martha. They must have married knowing Cecil would soon be going overseas, leaving Martha behind. She must have worried greatly about her new husband when he was first declared missing in action and then prisoner of war.

Between 1956 and 1958, Cecil and Martha must have divorced. They are listed as husband and wife in the 1956 Louisville, Kentucky city directory. Cecil worked in the lab at Ford Motors and they lived at 1353 Lillian. In the 1958 directory, Cecil’s wife is listed as Ethel L., and the couple lived at 1207 West Market. Cecil was employed as a Trimmer for Ford Motors. Cecil must have been 39 or 40 years old when he remarried in 1957 or 1958.

Cecil Carlton McWhorter died on February 10, 1965 in Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky at age 46 of pancreatic cancer, of which he had been suffering for ten months. On his death certificate, his occupation was listed as Assembler for the Ford Motor Company. His wife was listed as Mrs. Ethel McWhorter. He is buried in Evergreen Cemetery in Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky.

Cecil’s first wife, Martha Rohner, died March 21, 2010 in Louisville at the age of 93. The last name “McWhorter” was not included in her obituary title, leading me to believe that she and Cecil had indeed divorced. However, there was mention that she was preceded in death by her husband, Cecil [McWhorter]. Survivors listed in her obituary included nieces, nephews, great-nieces and great-nephews, but no children.

I cannot find an obituary, death record, or current address listing for Cecil’s second wife, Ethel L. McWhorter. An obituary usually reveals whether a person had any children or not. Cecil and Martha apparently didn’t have children, but I don’t know if he and Ethel did. They were married for seven or eight years before he died, so could have.

When I visited the NPRC (National Personnel Records Center) in St. Louis, Missouri, I reviewed Cecil McWhorter’s military record. Unfortunately, Cecil’s record was destroyed in the fire of 1973, or at least most of his record. The only document it contained was Cecil’s Final Payment Roll dated August 25, 1945.

As far as I know, on Black March Liberation Day, May 2, 1945, Dad, Laurie Newbold, and Cecil McWhorter finished their march across Germany together. The column of prisoners of which these three were a combine had been on the road marching since February 6, eighty-six days and five hundred miles. They endured so much together, but I don’t believe that they ever saw each other again for the remainder of their lives. I would like to find their children to share the knowledge of the bond our fathers had almost seventy-five years ago with the next generation.

If you are a relative of 351st Bomb Group waist gunner Cecil C. McWhorter or RAF airman Laurie Newbold, please Contact Me.

© Cindy Farrar Bryan and The Arrowhead Club, 2018

WWII Timeline – Fall 1934

I’m continuing my WWII Timeline series with a look at October – December 1934 in this post.

A Timeline of WWII, Fall 1934

October 1934

The 6,000-mile (10,000-km) historic trek of the Chinese communists, also known as the “Long March,” led by Mao Zedong began. The trek resulted in the relocation of the communist revolutionary base from southeastern to northwestern China. Mao Zedong emerged as the undisputed party leader.

December 1934

The Italian military began a buildup following Benito Mussolini’s order for the conquest of Abyssinia (present-day Ethiopia).

December 1, 1934

An associate of Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin, Serge Kirov, was assassinated. Stalin used Kirov’s murder as the reason to remove 2,000 party officials from Leningrad.

Sources:

This series of posts is based on a compilation of timelines from:

The Holocaust Encyclopedia

The History Place:

The National WWII Museum Interactive Timeline

World War II Chronicle by the Editors of Publications International, Ltd.

Most recent post from the series:

Summer 1934

© Cindy Farrar Bryan and The Arrowhead Club, 2018

Cecil Carlton McWhorter, Part 2 of 3

Cecil Carlton McWhorter, continued…

Read Part 1 here.

On his final mission, Cecil McWhorter was left waist gunner on the Charles E. Cregar, Jr. crew of the 511th Bomb Squadron of the 351st Bomb Group on the October 3, 1944 Mission #213 to the Nuremburg Railroad Marshaling Yards. They were aboard B-17G 43-38518, which was a new ship assigned to the 511st Bomb Squad/351st Bomb Group less than two weeks before on September 21 according to Dave Osborne’s B-17 Fortress Master Log. Cecil was on his twelfth mission with the 351st.

On October 3, 1944 the Cregar crew consisted of:

  • Pilot, 1st Lt Charles E. Cregar, Jr., SN O-1043908
  • Co-pilot, 2nd Lt Sanford N. Groendyke, SN O-819086
  • Navigator, F/O James D. Timmie, SN T-124869
  • Bombardier, 1st Lt John F. Dwyer, SN O-1283565
  • Top Turret Gunner/Engineer, T/Sgt Edward L. Huth, SN 32447653
  • Radio Operator, S/Sgt  Elwood A. (Ziggy) Zigenfus, Jr., SN 13152369
  • Left Waist Gunner, S/Sgt Cecil C. McWhorter, SN 6285927
  • Ball Turret Gunner,  S/Sgt Charles E. Weller, SN 35263548
  • Tail Gunner, S/Sgt Thomas W. Richardson, SN 15195066

All on board were taken prisoner of war with the exception of bombardier John F. Dwyer, who lost his life on that mission.

The details of MIssing Air Crew Report 9358 (MACR9358) explain what happened on October 3, 1944 to the Cregar crew.

According to witnesses from other aircraft in the formation, the Cregar crew’s 43-38518 left the formation at 1150 hours under control for causes unknown. Pilot Donald Hadley noticed that Lt. Cregar’s plane failed to turn with the formation coming off the target. Hadley reported no visible signs of damage and all four engines turning. There were no fighters in the area, but there was moderate flak. Cregar never caught up with the formation and descended under control out of sight. Hadley saw no parachutes and heard no radio call from 43-38518.

Another witness, tail gunner Jack Tucker, reported much the same as Donald Hadley, adding that as the plane left the formation, it began to lose altitude and traveled in an easterly direction. He saw nothing to indicate that Cregar’s plane was damaged and the last he saw of them, they were flying at about 8500 feet (descending from their flying altitude of 25,500 feet).

Either Hadley or Tucker later added that thirty minutes after the aircraft left the formation, the pilot was heard to call for fighter support over VHF.

According to Individual Casualty Questionnaires included within the Missing Air Crew Report, just after Bombardier John Dwyer released the bombs and was observing the results, he was hit by flak and killed. One of the responders to the questionnaire (probably the navigator James Timmie, who would have been in the nose of the B-17 with Dwyer) reported,

The first shell burst about ten feet in front of the nose slightly to the right. A small fragment entered his head thru his steel helmet, earphone, and skull and started profuse bleeding. I administered firstaid to no avail and in a few minutes he was dead. His body was left with the plane, which did not burn, when last seen.

The pilot left formation in an attempt to fly the badly damaged ship to Switzerland.

The radio operator, Elwood Zigenfus, and tail gunner, Thomas Richardson, both reported that the pilot and co-pilot remained at the controls while the rest of the crew, with the exception of bombardier John Dwyer who was dead in the nose of the ship, assumed ditching positions in the radio room.

None of the men bailed out of the ship, but instead rode it down to a crash landing. The men reported that the ship struck the ground using various landmarks:

  • At Stellman (300 m west) 12 km west of Donauwoerth at 1230 hours
  • 10 miles south of Ulm
  • Near Dilligen, Germany
  • Near Elms, Germany
  • At the small village of Stattinham

Bombardier John F. Dwyer (born September 10, 1918) was found dead in the aircraft after the emergency landing. His date and place of death were listed as October 3, 1944 in Stillnau at Leipheim/Donau. His initial date and place of interment were October 7, 1944 at Leipheim/Donau town cemetery.

One of the crew said that the German guards reported that Dwyer was given a military funeral near where the ship went down, a small town named Dillingen. According to Findagrave.com, Dwyer was later re-interred at Lorraine American Cemetery and Memorial at Saint-Avold, Department de la Moselle, Lorraine, France.

The pilot, Charles Cregar, summarized with:

The target was RR Yards in Marsburg. They were at the target at 11:55 a.m. at an altitude of 26,000 feet. They left the formation at the first turn off the target. He didn’t bail out nor did any of the other members of the crew. He wrote:

All members of crew remained in the plane until we crash landed. One member was killed by the flak burst which knocked out our four engines. All other members uninjured then or in the crash landing that followed.

A German interrogator informed me voluntarily that Lt. Dwyer had been buried in Leipheim, “with full military honors just as if he had been a German officer.”

On pilot Charles Cregar’s page on the American Air Museum in Britain website, his son wrote about memories of his dad, in part,

Dad would never discuss the war, Mom said it brought up terrible memories. He regretted the death of his one crew member, and never discussed POW with anyone…Dad had fun, enjoyed friends including Ernie Kovacs (TV comedian), who was a childhood friend and Ziggy (from the flight crew). Never would eat potato soup or cabbage, apparently a POW thing.

Bombardier John Dwyer’s page includes a photo and notes,

John Dwyer, 351st Bomb Group

Killed in Action (KIA) Crashed near Stellnau in B-17 4338518.

Lt. Dwyer was a member of the International Guards before Pearl Harbor and first served with the Infantry, then being transferred to the air corps. He received his training at Santa Anna, Cal., Las Vegas, Nev., Carlsbad, NM, and Avon Park, Fla.

He was overseas from July 1944, and had completed twelve missions. Lt. Dwyer received the Presidential Group Citation and a posthumous Purple Heart.

Tail gunner Thomas Richardson’s page includes a photo,

Thomas Richardson, 351st Bomb Group

Pages for the remainder of the crew, including Cecil McWhorter, do not include any additional information or photos.

Thank you to 384th Bomb Group researcher Keith Ellefson for getting me a copy of Missing Air Crew Report 9358.

If you are a relative of 351st Bomb Group waist gunner Cecil C. McWhorter, or others on the Charles Cregar crew, or RAF airman Laurie Newbold, please Contact Me.

To be continued…

© Cindy Farrar Bryan and The Arrowhead Club, 2018

WWII Timeline – Summer 1934

I’m continuing my WWII Timeline series with a look at July – September 1934 in this post.

A Timeline of WWII, Summer 1934

July 1, 1934

The Night of Long Knives began on June 30 and continued to July 2 as Adolf Hitler, Hermann Göring, and Heinrich Himmler conducted a purge of the SA leadership.

The purge and shooting of the SA leadership continued into Sunday, July 1. To give the appearance that life was returning to normal, Hitler hosted a tea party on Sunday evening for cabinet members and their families in the garden of the Chancellery.

July 2, 1934

The purge ended by 4 a.m., early Monday morning, on July 2. An exact number of deaths is not known as all Gestapo reports were destroyed. Estimates range from 200 to over 1,000, less than half of which were SA officers. An unknown number were murdered by mistaken identity. That was the case for the music critic of a Munich newspaper, Dr. Willi Schmidt. Mistaken for another Willi Schmidt on the list, he was taken from his home by four SS men. His body was later returned to his wife and three young children in a sealed coffin by the Gestapo, who ordered that they were not to open it.

July 13, 1934

Hitler spoke before the Nazi controlled Reichstag (Parliament). He announced that seventy-four had been shot and justified the murders with:

If anyone reproaches me and asks why I did not resort to the regular courts of justice, then all I can say is this: In this hour I was responsible for the fate of the German people, and thereby I became the supreme judge of the German people.

It was no secret that this time the revolution would have to be bloody; when we spoke of it we called it ‘The Night of the Long Knives.’ Everyone must know for all future time that if he raises his hand to strike the State, then certain death is his lot.

With these words, Hitler proclaimed himself the supreme judge of the German people. He placed himself above the law, making his word the law, which instilled a permanent sense of fear in the German people.

The killing of the horrific Night of Long Knives was over, but the aftermath was just beginning. By condoning the events, the regular German Army generals effectively supported Hitler and his actions.

Remaining SA members were eventually inducted into the regular German Army when Hitler re-introduced military conscription (the draft, or compulsory enlistment for state service) in 1935.

July 20, 1934

Hitler rewarded the SS by granting it independent status as an organization. It was no longer part of the SA. Reichsführer Heinrich Himmler, leader of the SS, now answered only to Hitler, and Reinhard Heydrich was promoted to SS Gruppenführer (Lieutenant-General). With Himmler and Heydrich at the helm, the SS would bring mass murder and terror for the next eleven years to the third Reich. 

July 22, 1934

The Nazis prohibited Jews from getting legal qualifications.

July 25, 1934

In a coup attempt, Austrian Nazis murdered Austrian Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss. In early 1933, Dollfuss had shut down parliament, banned the Austrian Nazi party, and assumed dictatorial powers. Dollfuss was succeeded by Kurt von Schuschnigg.

August 2, 1934

German President Paul von Hindenburg died at 9 a.m. Within hours, Adolf Hitler and the Nazis announced the following law, dated August 1, before President Hindenburg’s death.

The Reich Government has enacted the following law which is hereby promulgated.

Section 1. The office of Reich President will be combined with that of Reich Chancellor. The existing authority of the Reich President will consequently be transferred to the Führer and Reich Chancellor, Adolf Hitler. He will select his deputy.

Section 2. This law is effective as of the time of the death of Reich President von Hindenburg.

Following the announcement, the German Officers’ Corps and every member of the German Army swore a personal oath of allegiance to Adolf Hitler, not to the Nazi party, but to Hitler himself. A nationwide vote was scheduled, but Adolf Hitler had already officially become Der Führer, or absolute leader, of Germany, and seized total power in Germany.

In the interim, President Hindenburg’s last will and testament came out. His last wishes, in a personal letter to Adolf Hitler, included a desire for a return to a constitutional monarchy. Hitler ignored President Hindenburg’s wishes and likely destroyed the letter, as it was never seen again. However, the Nazis published a likely forgery complimenting Hitler, which was used as part of the election campaign to get the vote for Hitler.

August 19, 1934, in Germany

About ninety-five percent of registered German voters voted in the August 19 election and ninety percent of them voted for Adolf Hitler with thirty-eight million votes. Hitler claimed himself Führer of Germany by the direct will of the people, wielding absolute power in Germany. Adolf Hitler had become the law of Germany.

August 19, 1934, in China

Lasting until September 1934, Chinese Nationalist troops began an aggressive campaign to eject Chinese Communists from their occupied territory south of the Yangtze River.

August 20, 1934

The day after Adolf Hitler was voted Führer of Germany, mandatory loyalty oaths were introduced throughout the Reich.

The oath of loyalty for Public Officials:

I swear: I shall be loyal and obedient to Adolf Hitler, the Führer of the German Reich and people, respect the laws, and fulfill my official duties conscientiously, so help me God.

The oath of loyalty for Soldiers of the Armed Forces:

I swear by God this sacred oath: I will render unconditional obedience to Adolf Hitler, the Führer of the German Reich and people, Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, and will be ready as a brave soldier to risk my life at any time for this oath.

These oaths were pledged to Hitler personally, not the German State or German Constitution. The oaths were taken very seriously by members of the German Officers’ Corps, which now considered obedience to Hitler a sacred duty, and placed the German armed forces as the personal instrument of Hitler.

September 1934

At the annual Nuremberg Nazi Party rallies, a euphoric Hitler proclaimed,

The German form of life is definitely determined for the next thousand years. The Age of Nerves of the nineteenth century has found its close with us. There will be no revolution in Germany for the next thousand years.

September 18, 1934

The Soviets join the League of Nations.

Sources:

This series of posts is based on a compilation of timelines from:

The Holocaust Encyclopedia

The History Place:

The National WWII Museum Interactive Timeline

Wikipedia: Assassination of Austrian Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss

World War II Chronicle by the Editors of Publications International, Ltd.

Most recent post from the series:

Spring 1934

© Cindy Farrar Bryan and The Arrowhead Club, 2018

Cecil Carlton McWhorter, Part 1 of 3

A few weeks ago, I wrote about an aspect of the WWII Black March of prisoners of war of Stalag Luft IV, the Combine. My father, George Edwin Farrar, who was a waist gunner in the 384th Bomb Group based in Grafton Underwood, England, was one of the prisoners on the March. Dad’s B-17 went down on September 28, 1944 and after a lengthy hospital stay, he was placed in Stalag Luft IV around Thanksgiving.

I have found that when the prisoners of Stalag Luft IV were marched out of the prison camp on February 6, 1945, Dad, RAF airman Laurie Newbold, and 351st Bomb Group waist gunner Cecil McWhorter likely made up a three-man combine. This is not information that my dad shared with me. He never mentioned these men when he told me stories of the POW camp and March. These things I had to find on my own, but as a place to start, he left a clue, a letter he had saved since 1946.

Most of the letters in the bundle my dad saved since the war were written by the families of my dad’s crew between the time the crew went missing and the end of the war. But this one was dated July 15, 1946 and it came from England. It was from Laurie Newbold, an airman with England’s RAF and it was clear that he had been close to my father when they were prisoners of war. In his letter, Laurie mentioned another airman, this one American.

Have you ever come across any more of Room 12. Old Mac Whorter lives down south at East Bernstadt, N London, Kentucky but I forgot that your states are as big as England.

This one letter my father saved added to the little detail I knew about his time as a POW:

  • My dad, Laurie Newbold, and a man Laurie called “Old Mac Whorter” roomed together at Stalag Luft IV and likely marched together in the Black March. Laurie also noted that this man lived in East Bernstadt, Kentucky.
  • Dad, Laurie, and “Old Mac Whorter” were assigned to Room 12, hut number unknown, compound unknown.

Gregory Hatton runs a memorial website on Stalag Luft IV. Among the interesting information Greg presents is a document that contains a “Report of the International Committee of the Red Cross Visit of Oct. 5 & 6, 1944 by Mr. Biner, Stalag Luft IV.” In a section describing the accommodations at the camp, the report notes that there are four camps or compounds within Luft IV: A, B, C, and D.

A, B, and C contained Americans only. Camp D contained American and British. I must assume that my father and “Old Mac Whorter” were in Camp D as they were housed with British RAF POW Laurie Newbold. I don’t know how many barracks or huts were built in Camp D and haven’t yet found a way to determine which one they were in, but apparently they were in Room 12 of their hut.

I wanted to know more about the two men my dad spent his darkest days with in the prison camp and on the March. Since “Old Mac Whorter” was an American, I thought I would research him first since I am more familiar with the American WWII airman websites and genealogical sites.

To discover the real name of “Old Mac Whorter,” I had to make a few guesses. First, the man’s last name was probably MacWhorter or McWhorter. Searching the National Archives database of WWII prisoners of war in Stalag Luft IV, I found him. Not easily, but I found him. For some reason, the database listed his last name as Mc Whorter, with a space after the “Mc.” But here was a good candidate, Cecil C. McWhorter, and his home was in Kentucky.

Cecil C. McWhorter’s Army Air Forces serial number was 6285927. He was a staff sergeant in the Air Corps, had become a POW on October 3, 1944, and served with the 351st Bomb Group. The 351st was a B-17 group based in Polebrook, England, not very far from my dad’s group, the 384th in Grafton Underwood, less than fifteen miles away. Cecil’s plane went down just five days after my dad’s.

Continuing my National Archives search, I found Cecil’s enlistment record. It revealed he was born in 1918 and he resided in Laurel County, Kentucky. The city Laurie Newbold mentioned in his letter, East Bernstadt, is a city in Laurel County.

Cecil enlisted in the Air Corps on December 19, 1941. I realized Cecil must have also served in another capacity or he would have finished his tour and returned home long before he became a POW in 1944. I did not discover how or where else he served at this point in my research.

Next in the search, I turned to the American Air Museum in Britain’s database. Here I found that Cecil served in the 511th Bomb Squadron of the 351st Bomb Group, based at Polebrook, England. His page confirmed how Cecil came to be in Stalag Luft IV,

Prisoner of War (POW) Crashed near Stellnau on 10/3/44 in B-17 #4338518

When I followed a link to the page for the aircraft (unnamed 43-38518), I learned even more details:  where the ship crashed, the names of the crew, and the Missing Air Crew Report number, 9358.

Now that I knew which bomb group of the 8th Air Force Cecil served in, I searched for more information for his group, the 351st. I found they have both a website and a Facebook group page. The 351st Bomb Group’s website contains detailed information about Cecil’s last mission, the crew he flew with, their target for October 3, 1944, the B-17 they were aboard, and the number for the missing air crew report, MACR9358.

If you are a relative of 351st Bomb Group waist gunner Cecil C. McWhorter or RAF airman Laurie Newbold, please Contact Me.

To be continued…

© Cindy Farrar Bryan and The Arrowhead Club, 2018

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