The Arrowhead Club

Crewmates, Part 1 of 2

My dad, George Edwin Farrar, was a waist gunner on a B-17 crew based in England during WWII. I have written extensively about his bomb group, the 384th of the 8th Army Air Force, his base in Grafton Underwood, and his crew piloted by John Oliver “Jay” Buslee.

While many people are familiar with the makeup of a B-17 crew, many are unaware that by the time that Daddy was flying his missions, a B-17 crew was generally made up of nine airmen instead of ten. The crew positions were:

  1. Pilot
  2. Co-pilot
  3. Navigator
  4. Bombardier
  5. Radio Operator
  6. Engineer/Top Turret Gunner
  7. Ball Turret Gunner
  8. Tail Gunner
  9. Waist Gunner (originally two were assigned to each crew, but during Daddy’s time, the crews flew with only one)

And the crews on each mission were not always made up of the same original crew members that were trained together and assigned to the group together. In fact, on the sixteen missions my father completed before becoming a POW, he served with thirty-two different crewmates.

I have written about them before, so today will be a recap, a list only, of who they were. I’ll follow up next week with Part 2 which will include a photo of each man.

6 Crewmates who served in the cockpit of the B-17:  Commanders, Pilots, and Co-Pilots

  • Buslee, John Oliver, 15 missions
  • Albrecht, David Franklin, 13 missions
  • Fairfield, William Adelbert, 1 mission
  • Reed, William M, 1 mission
  • Shwery, Arthur J, 1 mission
  • Springsted, Donald George, 1 mission

11 Crewmates who served in the nose of the B-17:  Navigators, Bombardiers, and Toggliers

  • Davis, James Buford, 11 missions
  • Rybarczyk, Chester Anthony, 9 missions
  • Henson, William Alvin, 3 missions
  • Stearns, Robert Sumner, 2 missions
  • Fryden, Marvin, 1 mission
  • Galloway, Leonard (NMI), 1 mission
  • Jacobs, Edward Gregory, 1 mission
  • Jacobson, George John, 1 mission
  • Leschak, Nickolas, 1 mission
  • Lord, Kenneth Smith, 1 mission
  • Ward, Donald L, 1 mission

3 Crewmates who served in the radio room of the B-17: Radio Operators

  • Peluso, Sebastiano Joseph, 14 missions
  • Meyer, Melvin J, 1 mission
  • Sherriff, Albert Keith, 1 mission

3 Crewmates who served in the top turret just behind the pilots of the B-17:  Engineers/Top Turret Gunners

  • Bryant, Lenard Leroy, 14 missions
  • Murphy, William C, 1 mission
  • Seeley, Clarence Benjamin, 1 mission

5 Crewmates who served in the ball turret of the B-17: Ball Turret Gunners

  • Foster, Erwin Vernon, 6 missions
  • Miller, Irving L, 5 missions
  • Mitchell, Robert McKinley, 2 missions
  • Watson, Paul Leland, 2 missions
  • McMann, George Francis, 1 mission

4 Crewmates who served in the tail of the B-17: Tail Gunners

  • Lucynski, Eugene Daniel, 11 missions
  • Andersen, Gerald Lee, 3 missions
  • La Chine, Lloyd Earl, 1 mission
  • Macuch, Albert Richard, 1 mission

To be continued next week…

© Cindy Farrar Bryan and The Arrowhead Club, 2020

WWII Timeline – Winter 1943

I’m continuing my WWII Timeline series with a look at January – March 1943 in this post.

A Timeline of WWII, Winter 1943

1943

The Nazi SS Einsatzgruppen passed the one million mark in number of Jews murdered. Slave laborers were used to dig up the buried bodies and burn them to remove all traces of the crime.

January 2, 1943

The Allies took Buna in New Guinea in the War in the Pacific. 

January 2/3, 1943

The Germans began to withdraw from the Caucasus (also known as Caucasia), an area located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, and mainly occupied by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Russia.

January 10, 1943

The Soviets began an offensive against the Germans in Stalingrad, Russia.

January 14-24, 1943

Both US President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill attended the Casablanca Conference at the Anfa Hotel in Casablanca, Morocco to plan the Allies’ European strategy for the next phase of World War II.

Roosevelt announced the war could only end with  the unconditional surrender of Germany, Italy, and Japan, which Churchill endorsed.

Generals Charles de Gaulle and Henri Giraud also attended, representing the Free French forces, but Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin declined due to the ongoing Battle of Stalingrad.

January 18, 1943

Jews in the Warsaw (Poland) Ghetto began their first resistance in an uprising after realizing that “resettlement” was a German ruse to lead them to their deaths.

January 22, 1943

The Allies defeated the Japanese at Sanananda on New Guinea.

January 23, 1943

General Bernard Montgomery’s British Eighth Army took Tripoli in North Africa.

January 27, 1943

The US Eighth Army Air Force conducted its first bombing raid from bases in England against Germany. The target was the port of Wilhelmshaven.

January 29, 1943

The Nazis ordered the arrest of all Gypsies and sent them to extermination camps.

January 30, 1943

Senior Nazi official Ernst Kaltenbrunner succeeded Reinhard Heydrich, who had been assassinated in June 1942, as head of the RSHA (Reichssicherheitshauptamt, the Reich Main Security Office).

February 1943

The Romanian government proposed the transfer of 70,000 Jews to Palestine to the Allies, but Britain and the US did not respond.

Greek Jews were ordered into ghettos.

February 1, 1943

Japan began the evacuation of Guadalcanal.

February 2, 1943

After the capture of German commanding officer Field Marshall Friedrich Paulus on January 31, the remainder of his 6th Army surrendered to the Soviets in Stalingrad. It was the first big defeat of Hitler’s armies.

February 8, 1943

In Burma, also known as Myanmar, in Southeast Asia, British-Indian forces began guerrilla operations against the Japanese.

February 9, 1943

The Japanese resistance on Guadalcanal ended.

February 14-25, 1943

The Battle of Kasserine Pass, between US 1st Armored Division and German Panzers, took place in Tunisia, North Africa. Kasserine Pass is a two-mile-wide gap in the Grand Dorsal chain of the Atlas Mountains.

February 16, 1943

The Soviets recaptured Kharkov.

February 18, 1943

The Nazis arrested the White Rose resistance leaders in Munich. The White Rose group was a non-violent, intellectual group of students who attended the University of Munich.

In Oak Ridge, Tennessee, construction began on a uranium enrichment facility.

A prototype of Boeing’s B-29 Superfortress bomber that took off from Boeing Field in Seattle crashed into the Frye Packing Plant. The crew of eleven and nineteen of the meat-processing factory workers perished. Although the event could not be concealed, the identity of the aircraft (which was the type to later drop the first atomic bombs on Japan, the Enola Gay) remained classified until the end of World War II.

February 22, 1943

White Rose anti-Nazi resistance leaders Christoph Probst and Hans and Sophie Scholl were tried and sentenced to death by guillotine. Their sentences were carried out that day at Stadelheim Prison in Munich.

February 251943

Twenty-four hour or “round-the-clock” bombing schedule started with USAAF planes bombing Germany in the daytime while the RAF bombed at night.

February 27, 1943

Jews working in the Berlin armaments industry were sent to Auschwitz.

March 1943

The deportation of Greek Jews to Auschwitz began and lasted until August, totaling 49,900 persons.

March 1, 1943

American Jews held a rally at Madison Square Garden in New York City with hopes of pressuring the U.S. government to help the Jews of Europe.

The U.S. began processed food rationing.

March 2, 1943

German forces began their withdrawal from Tunisia, Africa.

March 2-4, 1944

Aircraft of the US Fifth Air Force and Royal Australian Air Force attacked a Japanese convoy moving troops to Lae, New Guinea, defeating the Japanese in the Battle of the Bismarck Sea in the southwest Pacific.

March 13, 1943

An attempt on Adolf Hitler’s life failed when a bomb made of plastic explosives failed.

March 14, 1943

Between June 1942 and March 1943, the Jewish Krakow Ghetto was liquidated with inhabitants either killed in the streets, sent to the Płaszów slave-labor camp, Auschwitz concentration camp, or Belzec extermination camp.

March 15, 1943

German forces re-captured Kharkov, the second largest city in the Ukraine (also known as Kharkiv), from the Soviets.

March 16-20, 1943

At the climax of the Battle of the Atlantic, twenty-seven merchant ships were sunk by German U-boats, Unterseeboot (undersea boat/German submarines) in one week.

March 21, 1943

Another attempt on Adolf Hitler’s life, this time by suicide bomber, failed when Hitler left the area before the bomb could be detonated.

March 17, 1943

Bulgaria openly opposed deportation of its Jews.

March 20-28, 1943

General Bernard Montgomery’s British Eighth Army broke through the Mareth Line in Tunisia, Africa.

March 22, 1943

Gas chamber and Crematoria IV became operational at Auschwitz.

March 31, 1943

Gas chamber and Crematoria II became operational at Auschwitz.

Sources:

This series of posts is based on a compilation of timelines from:

The Holocaust Encyclopedia

The History Place:

The National WWII Museum Interactive Timeline

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

World War II Chronicle by the Editors of Publications International, Ltd.

Wikipedia:  Krakow Ghetto

Auschwitz Concentration Camp: The Gas Chambers and Crematoria

B-29 Prototype Crash

Plots to Kill Hitler

Most recent post from the series:

Fall 1942

© Cindy Farrar Bryan and The Arrowhead Club, 2020

The Black March Begins

The March of the POWs, of which my father George Edwin Farrar was one, from Stalag Luft IV began 75 years ago on February 6, 1945. It continued for 86 days and covered 500 miles across Pomerania and Germany.

Joseph P. O’Donnell, one of the Stalag Luft IV POW’s and the author of the Shoe Leather Express books wrote in his first volume, The Evacuation of Kriegsgefangenen Lager Stalag Luft IV Deutschland Germany, about the evacuation of the prison camp and the 86-day 500-mile march of which my father, George Edwin Farrar, was a part.

When I was a child, Daddy told me that he had been in a POW camp and had to march across Germany, but the details were too horrific for a father to tell his young daughter. I did not learn the horrors of what he had endured until many years after he died. Those I learned from the books of Joseph O’Donnell, Candy Kyler Brown, Laura Edge, and David Dorfmeier, and from the memories, written and oral, of some of the participants.

Joseph O’Donnell wrote in the opening pages of his first volume that,

By February 3, 1945, the front line was 45 miles south of Luft IV and extended to the Oder River, 40 miles east of Berlin…

With the Russian Red Army moving so close to the POW camp, it was a time of uncertainty for the prisoners. Would they be liberated by the Russians? Would they all be executed before the Red Army’s arrival? Would they evacuate the camp ahead of the Russians? Most expected an evacuation, but it was not a certainty.

O’Donnell continued,

We knew our evacuation was imminent as the Russians were advancing from the east. We could look through the cracks in the shutters over the windows and see the flashes from the artillery; and if the wind was right, we could hear the artillery at the front. My estimation was that we were less than 30 miles from the front lines.

Early on the morning of February 5, 1945, seventy-five years ago today, an announcement was made that the POWs would not evacuate the camp. But at 10 a.m., another announcement was made that they would be moving out the next morning.

The prisoners were told that they would be walking for three days. They were each given 1/3 loaf of bread and were allowed to take as many Red Cross parcels as they wanted. With each parcel weighing eleven pounds, the prisoners were forced to discard what they couldn’t comfortably carry.

Joseph O’Donnell wrote that the first day’s march was uneventful, and that they walked eighteen kilometers, a little over eleven miles.

But for men who were already malnourished, injured, and otherwise in poor physical shape from their confinement, this was no easy task.

Knowing that my father was one of the men packing up and marching out of the camp exactly seventy-five years ago sends a chill down my spine. To this point, he had already survived a mid-air collision (the sole survivor of his crew), an attack by German civilians after he parachuted to the ground, injuries requiring a two-month hospital stay, and months in the prison camp with very little food.

At twenty-three years old, survival was his main goal in life. Marching through the gates of the prison camp must have seemed overwhelming, with a mix of a sense of freedom with the uncertainty of what lay ahead. A yearning to see his family again kept him placing one foot in front of the other for the next eighty-six days.

© Cindy Farrar Bryan and The Arrowhead Club, 2020

Minor Accident of War

Seventy-five years ago, on February 3, 1945, one of the 384th Bomb Group’s B-17’s, The Challenger, was badly damaged on a mission to Berlin, and during the return flight to England, went down in the North Sea. Only one of the crew survives today, Edward Field, the WWII Army Air Forces navigator turned poet.

Twenty years after the ditching, Edward Field wrote and published the poem, World War II, which describes the tragic events of the day. It first appeared in his second book, Variety Photoplays, in 1967 and was included in the 2003 Library of America anthology of World War II poems, Poets of World War II.

Last year, Edward’s niece, Diane Fredel-Weis, assembled a team to bring Edward’s poem, World War II, to life on the big screen. Diane is, among other things, a former creative Disney marketing executive and an Emmy award-winning writer and producer. As Executive Producer of the film, Minor Accident of War, Diane led a team of world-class artists to create an animated short film from Edward’s poem, which Edward narrates.

The film’s website presents a trailer of the film, introductions to the team, a list of upcoming screenings, information and photos about the making of the film, a biography – including photos and writing credits – of Edward Field, and the text of Edward’s poem, World War II.

Screenings at film festivals are regularly added to the web site, so check back often to find when it will be playing in your area.

The National WWII Museum in New Orleans is hosting a reception, screening of the film, and panel discussion with Edward Field and the filmmakers on the 75th anniversary of the ditching on February 3, 2020 from 5 to 7pm at the museum’s Solomon Victory Theater at 945 Magazine St, New Orleans, LA 70130. Tickets are complimentary, but registration is required.

As of this writing, the film has won many awards, notably…

  • Studio City Film Festival, Best Short Documentary, 2019
  • Los Angeles Animation Festival, Best Animated Documentary, 2019
  • Chicago International REEL Shorts Film Festival, Best Short Film, 2019
  • Big Apple Film Festival, Best Animated Film, 2019
  • Spotlight Documentary Film Awards, Atlanta, GA, Spotlight Gold Award, December 2019
  • Miami Jewish Film Festival, Best Short Film, 2020

…and I’m sure there will be many more.

Edward Field survived the ditching thanks to fellow crew mate Jack Coleman Cook, the ship’s ball turret gunner.

I have written extensively about Edward Field and Jack Coleman Cook and am delighted to attend the event in New Orleans and honored to participate in the panel discussion.

Jack Coleman Cook’s past still intrigues me and I continue to spend many hours attempting to find his family origins prior to his adoption. Recent research seems to be leading me in the right direction, but only time will tell.

Regardless of whether I am successful or not in my continued research of Jack, I’d like to recap my research history here as a refresher, maybe as much for me as you since I will likely need to answer questions about Jack’s history in New Orleans. It’s been a while since I’ve delved into the details of Jack’s short life.

In November 2016, the poet Edward Field became an airman again. Edward sent this e-mail to the webmaster and researchers (of which I am one) of the 384th Bomb Group (historical) website, 384thBombGroup.com,

I’m a veteran of WWII who was stationed at Grafton Underwood Airfield in England during WWII and flew 27 bombing missions over Europe in B17s as Navigator.  I’m writing about our ball turret gunner Jack Coleman Cook, to find out if there’s any way of getting him a posthumous award for bravery.  He saved my life on our third mission over Germany when we crashed in the North Sea. Attached is a poem I’ve written about the ditching that describes the circumstances of his death – the poem is included in the Library of America anthology of war poems and also has appeared in several of my own books.  I’m 92 now, and feel something should be done to credit Jack Cook’s incredible act of bravery.

Edward Field (2nd Lt., 0-2065887)
546th Bombardment Squadron
384th Bomb Group

Seven months earlier, I had published a series of articles about all of the 384th Bomb Group airmen who are still listed as Missing in Action. When I read the e-mail, the names Edward Field and Jack Coleman Cook registered immediately as part of my story about radio operator Fred Maki who was washed away in the North Sea after the ditching of February 3, 1945. Recalling the co-pilot’s narrative of the events, I remembered thinking exactly as Edward described, “something should be done to credit Jack Cook’s incredible act of bravery.”

But at the time I wrote the MIA articles, Jack Coleman Cook was not the focus of my research and I left the thought as unfinished business that perhaps someday I would follow up on. Edward’s e-mail renewed my interest in honoring Jack Cook and I realized it was something I had to do, especially when the man who benefited from Jack’s bravery asked for help to do so.

Not easily finding a solution to our quest, I eventually sought the advice and help of two friends who were also NexGen’s (next generation – children) of 384th Bomb Group airmen. Frank Alfter, son of waist and tail gunner Glen Edward Alfter, and Todd Touton, son of pilot William F. Touton.

Frank told me how he honored another airman of the 384th for saving his father’s life during a mission with a Proclamation on the Floor of the House of Representatives.

Todd, who wrote the music to and performed Damn Yankee, the music of my 384th Bomb Group tribute video), along with his Washington, D.C. friends Evan Wallach (who wrote the lyrics to Damn Yankee) and David Olive (who was originally from Arkansas, Jack Cook’s home state), put me in touch with Arkansas Congressman Bruce Westerman’s office.

In April 2018, Edward and I met in Washington, D.C., and were proud to watch Congressman Bruce Westerman and Congressman Jerry Nadler honor Jack Coleman Cook on the Floor of the House of Representatives with two proclamations.

I can’t tell the entire story again here, but if you follow the links below, you can learn more about the journey to honor Jack.

Links to previous posts and other information about Jack Coleman Cook and Edward Field

All of the Edward Field and Jack Coleman Cook blog posts compiled into one PDF document

© Cindy Farrar Bryan and The Arrowhead Club, 2020

Stalag Luft IV, January 1945

I recently wrote about my dad and his Stalag Luft IV roomate, George Farrar, Lawrence Newbold, and Christmas 1944. By early January 1945, after a dismal 1944 holiday season, the POWs believed they were in for a long stay in Stalag Luft IV.

Stalag Luft IV was located at Gross Tychow, Pomerania, (now Tychowo, Poland), 20 kilometers (about 12 1/2 miles) southeast of Belgard.

On January 12, 1945, the Soviets launched the first phase of their long-planned Winter Offensive, with the Russian Red Army invading eastern Germany. German forces were greatly outnumbered as German troops and equipment had earlier been transferred from the eastern front to support the operation in the Ardennes to the west. The Germans retreated ahead of the Red Army’s advance through Poland.

On January 16, Adolf Hitler moved his residence and base of operations to the underground air raid shelter/subterranean bunker complex at Berlin’s Reich Chancellery known as the Führerbunker. It would be the last of the various headquarters he used in WWII, until the last week of the war. (On April 29, Adolf Hitler would marry Eva Braun there, less than two days before they committed suicide).

On January 17, the Soviet Red Army liberated the Polish capital of Warsaw, less than 300 miles southeast of Stalag Luft IV.

The POW’s of Stalag Luft IV were aware of the Russian advance and some believed liberation by the Red Army and freedom might be possible. Others feared the results of the Soviets overrunning their camp.

Soon rumors of the evacuation of the camp of 10,000 Allied airmen began circulating. Beginning January 26, approximately 3,000 of Stalag Luft IV’s most disabled POW’s were evacuated by train to Stalag Luft I at Barth and Stalag VIIA at Moosburg. One of these men was the 384th Bomb Group’s Patrick Dennis Benker.

Following the evacuation of the most disabled prisoners, POW’s from Stalag XXA at Tourn and IIB at Hammerstein arrived at Stalag Luft IV as the Soviet Red Army moved into Pomerania.

Now expecting an imminent evacuation of Stalag Luft IV, the POW’s began preparing to leave the camp.

By January 30, the Red Army had advanced within 100 miles of Berlin and Adolf Hitler delivered his final radio address. By the next day, the last day of January, 1945, the Soviets had reached the Oder River.

Sources:

Wikipedia:  Führerbunker

World War II Chronicle by the Editors of Publications International, Ltd.

C-Lager:  Stalag Luft IV & the 86-Day Hunger March by David Dorfmeier

Notes:

Chapter 13 of David Dorfmeier’s book, C-Lager, covers the month leading up to the evacuation of Stalag Luft IV in great detail. C-Lager offers excellent descriptions of camp life and the march. David’s father, Donald Dorfmeier, served as a waist gunner of the 398th Bomb Group, based at Nuthampstead, England, and was a POW at Stalag Luft IV. David’s book can be found on Amazon using the link above in the Sources section.

© Cindy Farrar Bryan and The Arrowhead Club, 2020

WWII Timeline – Fall 1942

I’m continuing my WWII Timeline series with a look at October – December 1942 in this post.

A Timeline of WWII, Fall 1942

October 5, 1942

In the Ukraine, two employees of a German construction firm accidentally came across an execution squad killing Jews from the Ukraine’s small town of Dubno. One, an engineer named Hermann Graebe, gave an eyewitness account of the executions. (See link to The History Place article in Sources at the bottom of this page for Graebe’s account).

October 11/12, 1942

Cruisers and destroyers of the U.S. Navy were victorious over the Imperial Japanese Navy in the Battle of Cape Esperance, also known as the Second Battle (or Sea Battle) of Savo Island, off Guadalcanal.

October 12-14, 1942

On October 12 at the Mizocz Ghetto in the Ukraine, the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police and the German police prepared to liquidate the ghetto. The 1,700 Jews of Mizocz fought back and half of them were able to escape or hide during the two-day uprising. On October 14, those recaptured were taken to a ravine and shot.

October 13, 1942

The 164th Infantry Regiment, the first of the U.S. Army troops, landed on Guadalcanal.

October 14/15, 1942

Overnight, Japanese warships bombed Henderson Field on Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. The next morning they sent troops ashore.

October 18, 1942

Hitler issued the Commando Order through the High Command of the German Armed Forces, an order to execute all captured British commandos.

October 22, 1942

The Nazi SS suppressed a Jewish revolt at Sachsenhausen (Oranienburg) of those about to be sent to Auschwitz.

October 23, 1942

The Second Battle of El Alamein began.

October 23–24, 1942

British troops were victorious over the Germans and Italians at El Alamein in Egypt. Axis forces retreated across Libya to the eastern border of Tunisia.

October 25, 1942

Deportations of Norway’s Jews to Auschwitz began.

October 26, 1942

The U.S. aircraft carrier USS Hornet was lost in the Battle of Santa Cruz off Guadalcanal between U.S. and Japanese warships.

The War Production Board gave the Manhattan Project its highest wartime priority rating.

October 28, 1942

The first SS transport from Theresienstadt Concentration/Transit Camp arrived at Auschwitz. It carried 1,866 people of which only 247, mostly men, were chosen as prisoners by the SS. The remainder (1,619) were executed in the gas chamber.

November 1942

One hundred seventy thousand Jews were killed in a mass execution near Bialystok, Poland.

November 1, 1942

The Allies broke through the Axis lines at El Alamein in “Operation Supercharge.”

November 4, 1942

Nazi troops began their retreat from El Alamein.

November 8, 1942

The U.S. invasion of North Africa known as Operation Torch began. Allied (U.S. and British) troops landed on Algerian and Moroccan beaches in French North Africa. Vichy French troops failed to defend their territory and the Allies advanced to the western border of Tunisia.

November 11, 1942

Axis (German and Italian) forces invaded unoccupied Vichy (southern) France.

November 14/15, 1942

The U.S. Navy cruiser USS Juneau was sunk by Imperial Japanese Navy warships off Guadalcanal. Five brothers, the sons of Thomas and Alleta Sullivan of Waterloo, Iowa, who served together on the Juneau, were all killed. The five Sullivan brothers were George Thomas (27), Francis Henry “Frank” (26), Joseph Eugene “Joe” (24), Madison Abel “Matt” (23), and Albert Leo “Al” (20).

November 16, 1942

Robert Oppenheimer was appointed the director of the Los Alamos, New Mexico atomic bomb facility.

November 19, 1942

Under General Zhukov, the Soviet Red Army began a counter-offensive against the Germans at Stalingrad in the USSR.

November 23/24, 1942

The Japanese attacked Darwin, Australia in an air raid.

November 23, 1942–February 2, 1943

In the Soviet counter-offensive against the Germans, Soviet troops broke through the Hungarian and Romanian lines northwest and southwest of Stalingrad. They trapped the German Sixth Army in the city. Adolf Hitler forbid the Sixth Army to retreat and they surrendered on January 30 and February 2, 1943.

November 30, 1942

The naval battle of Tassafaronga (also known as the Fourth Battle of Savo Island or the Battle of Lunga Point) took place off Guadalcanal between U.S. Navy and Imperial Japanese Navy warships. Five U.S. cruisers and four destroyers engaged eight Japanese destroyers. The U.S. sank one Japanese destroyer and the Japanese sank one U.S. cruiser and damaged three others. The rest of the Japanese ships escaped undamaged.

December 1942

After the exterminations of 600,000 Jews at the Belzec extermination camp, operations at the camp ceased and it was dismantled, plowed over, and planted.

December 2, 1942

Professor Enrico Fermi set up an atomic reactor at the University of Chicago and conducted the world’s first nuclear chain reaction test.

December 10, 1942

The first transport of Jews from Germany arrived at Auschwitz.

December 13, 1942

German General Erwin Rommel withdrew his forces from El Agheila in Libya in the Western Desert Campaign.

December 16, 1942

Soviets forces defeated Axis (Italian) troops on the River Don in the USSR.

December 17, 1942

British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden reported the mass executions of Jews by the Nazis in the British House of Commons. He said the Nazis were,

now carrying into effect Hitler’s oft repeated intention to exterminate the Jewish people of Europe.

The United States then declared that the Nazi crimes would be avenged.

December 20-24, 1942

The Japanese attacked Calcutta, India in a series of air raids.

December 28, 1942

The Nazis began sterilization experiments on women at the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp.

December 31, 1942

The German Navy and British Navy engaged in the Battle of the Barents Sea north of North Cape, Norway.

Emperor Hirohito of Japan gave his permission to Japanese troops to withdraw from Guadalcanal.

Sources:

This series of posts is based on a compilation of timelines from:

The Holocaust Encyclopedia

The History Place:

The National WWII Museum Interactive Timeline

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

World War II Chronicle by the Editors of Publications International, Ltd.

German Eyewitness Account of Einsatz Executions/SS Mass Murder

Mizoch Ghetto

Theresienstadt Concentration and Transit Camp

Most recent post from the series:

Summer 1942

© Cindy Farrar Bryan and The Arrowhead Club, 2020

The Collings Foundation Resumes Touring

On October 2, 2019, on a Wings of Freedom tour stop at Bradley International Airport in Windsor Locks, Connecticut, the Collings Foundation’s B-17 Nine O Nine developed a problem shortly after takeoff during a flight experience. Three crew members and ten paying passengers were aboard. Upon their immediate return to the airport and landing, the aircraft crashed. The Nine O Nine struck approach lights during the landing attempt, then struck vehicles and a deicing fluid storage tank, ending with an explosion and huge fire.

Pilot Ernest “Mac” McCauley, co-pilot Michael Foster, and five passengers were killed. One crew member and five passengers with varying degrees of injuries survived and one person on the ground was injured. The NTSB investigation into the accident is ongoing.

Prior to the accident, the Collings Foundation’s Wings of Freedom Tour was having a record year of attendance, the most in thirty years. And the foundation’s new American Heritage Museum at their Massachusetts campus held its grand opening in May.

The accident represents a tragic loss of life and the loss of a piece of history, the B-17 Nine O Nine. But the Collings Foundation will continue their mission to preserve history with their aircraft restoration projects and tours.

The restoration of the Collings Foundation’s other B-17, which they acquired from the Evergreen Air and Space Museum of McMinnville, Oregon, is ongoing and is expected to be completed in the next two years.

The Collings Foundation has announced their return to touring starting January 17, 2020 in Deland, Florida. Their web site lists several Florida tour stops in January and February, with other locations listed starting in July. Their latest newsletter notes that they plan to visit over 100 cities across the US in the 2020 Wings of Freedom tour.

You can check the Collings Foundation’s touring schedule for additional stops later in the year here.

The Collings Foundation show tours include a Consolidated B-24J Liberator, Witchcraft, a B-25, and a TF-51D (P51) Mustang. The B-24 flight experience is 30 minutes and the B-25 flight experience is 25 minutes. The P-51 Mustang can be reserved for either a half or full hour of flight instruction. If you are considering a flight experience, check here for more information and pricing.

I have toured the Nine O Nine on the ground many times, once with B-17 pilot friend John DeFrancesco, and was lucky enough to take the flight experience myself in 2013.

You can also check the B-17 tour schedules of other tour operators here.

© Cindy Farrar Bryan and The Arrowhead Club, 2020

WWII Timeline – Summer 1942

I’m continuing my WWII Timeline series with a look at July – September 1942 in this post.

A Timeline of WWII, Summer 1942

July 1-27, 1942

The First Battle of El Alamein began on July 1 and lasted through July 27. It was a battle fought in Egypt of the Western Desert Campaign between the Axis forces of Germany and Italy under Field Marshal Erwin Rommel and Allied forces of Britain, British India, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand of the Eighth Army.

July 2, 1942

Berlin Jews were sent to Theresienstadt, a hybrid concentration camp and ghetto established by the SS in the town of Terezín, which was located in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.

July 3, 1942

Nazi forces took Sevastopol, a port in the Crimea which was the Soviet’s main naval base on the Black Sea.

July 5, 1942

Soviet resistance in the Crimea ended.

July 6, 1942

Jewish diarist Anne Frank and her family went into hiding the day after older sister Margot learned she would be deported to a Nazi work camp. The family was living in Nazi-occupied Holland, to which they had fled in 1933 to escape Nazi persecution in their native Germany. The Frank family went into hiding as the Nazis began to purge Amsterdam of its Jewish population.

July 7, 1942

Nazi leader Heinrich Himmler allowed sterilization experiments at Auschwitz.

July 9, 1942

Nazi forces began a drive toward Stalingrad in the Soviet Union.

July 14, 1942

The deportation of Dutch Jews to Auschwitz began.

July 16/17, 1942

Almost thirteen thousand Parisian Jews were sent to Drancy Internment Camp located outside Paris.

July 17/18, 1942

Nazi leader Heinrich Himmler inspected the construction and expansion of four large gas chambers and crematories at Auschwitz-Birkenau and observed the entire extermination process of two trainloads of Jews which had arrived from Holland.

July 19, 1942

Nazi leader Heinrich Himmler ordered “Operation Reinhard,” the secretive WWII German plan to exterminate German-occupied Poland’s Jews, with their mass deportation to extermination camps.

July 21, 1942

Japanese troops landed near Gona on New Guinea.

July 22, 1942

The deportation of the first Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto to concentration and extermination camps, including the extermination camp of Treblinka, began. The deportation of Belgian Jews to Auschwitz also began.

The Treblinka extermination camp opened in occupied Poland, east of Warsaw. The camp had two buildings and ten gas chambers, each chamber holding 200 persons. Initially, carbon monoxide gas was piped in from engines placed outside the chamber, but was later replaced with Zyklon-B gas. The dead were burned in open pits.

August 1942

The deportation of Croatian Jews to Auschwitz began. 

August–November 1942

American troops halted the Japanese advance towards Australia at Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands.

August 1, 1942

As part of the U.S. effort to design an atomic bomb, the Army Corps of Engineers created the Manhattan Engineering District for the Manhattan Project. Temporary headquarters were established in the Manhattan area of New York. The project was initially named the “Development of Substitute Materials,” but the name was feared to draw attention.

Since Army Corps of Engineers districts often carried the name of the city where they were located, the project was officially named the “Manhattan District” on August 13 and informally known as the “Manhattan Engineer District” or MED. The official code name remained “Development of Substitute Materials.”

August 7, 1942

British General Bernard Montgomery took command of Eighth Army in North Africa.

The 1st Marine Division invaded Tulagi and Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands in the U.S.’s first amphibious landing of the Pacific War.

August 8, 1942

A day after landing, U.S. Marines took the unfinished airfield on Guadalcanal and named it Henderson Field after Midway hero Major Lofton Henderson.

General Dwight D. Eisenhower established his headquarters in the UK.

August 8/9, 1942

Overnight, eight Japanese warships sunk three U.S. Navy heavy cruisers and one destroyer and an Australian cruiser in under an hour. One more U.S. cruiser and two destroyers were damaged. Over 1,500 Allied crewmen were lost in the attack.

August 12, 1942

British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, arriving in a B-24 Liberator, met with General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and Premier Joseph Stalin at the Moscow Conference of 1942. Churchill intended to prove to Stalin that Great Britain was committed to winning the war as an ally of the Soviet Union.

On the first day of the assembly, Churchill said,

…we will continue, hand in hand, whatever our sufferings, whatever our toils, we will continue hand in hand, like comrades and brothers until every vestige of the Nazi regime has been beaten into the ground, until the memory only of it remains as an example and a warning for a future time.

This secret mission to Moscow by Winston Churchill to meet for the first time with Joseph Stalin and establish a personal relationship made future conferences of the wartime coalition known as the “Big Three” (the UK, US, and USSR) not only possible, but productive and successful.

August 17, 1942

The US Army Air Forces made it first attack on occupied Europe. Twelve B-17E Heavy Bombers of the 97th Bomb Group of the 8th Air Force were escorted by RAF (British Royal Air Force) Spitfires against the railroad marshalling yards at Rouen-Sotteville, France. Major Paul Tibbets piloted the lead aircraft with Brigadier General Ira Eaker aboard as an observer. Six other aircraft flew a diversion mission along the French coast. The mission was deemed a success with only minor damage to two aircraft.

One hundred twenty-two U.S. Marine raiders, transported by submarine, attacked Makin Atoll in the Gilbert Islands.

August 19, 1942

In “Operation Jubilee,” 6,100 British and Canadian troops raided the port of Dieppe on the Normandy coast of northern France. In almost ten hours, 1,380 troops were killed, 1,600 wounded, and 2,000 captured. The RAF (British Royal Air Force) lost 107 aircraft and the British Royal Navy lost one destroyer. German losses were considerable smaller with 345 dead or missing and 268 wounded. The Luftwaffe (German Air Force) lost only 40 aircraft. Civilian casualties were 48 dead and 100 wounded.

The 6th German Army began an attack on Stalingrad.

August 21, 1942

U.S. Marines repelled the first major Japanese ground attack on Guadalcanal as Japan attempts to retake the airfield on Guadalcanal.

August 23, 1942

Germany staged a massive air raid on Stalingrad.

August 24, 1942

The Japanese were defeated in the Battle of the Eastern Solomons between U.S. and Japanese aircraft carriers.

August 26-28, 1942

Seven thousand Jews were arrested in unoccupied France.

August 29, 1942

According to the Red Cross, Japan refused to allow safe passage of ships containing supplies for U.S. POWs.

August 30, 1942

U.S. Troops invaded Adak Island in the Aleutian Islands.

September 2, 1942

In the Battle of Alam el Halfa (August 30 – September 5) in Egypt, German General Erwin Rommel planned an attack on the British Eighth Army led by Lieutenant-General Bernard Montgomery. The British were victorious when Montgomery drove the Axis forces back and Rommel ordered a withdrawal.

September 9, 1942

At the Auschwitz concentration/extermination camp, open pit burning of bodies replaced burial.

September 9/10, 1942

In Oregon state, a Japanese floatplane bombed U.S. forests with the intent of starting a forest fire. The damage done by the “Lookout Air Raids” was minor.

September 12-14, 1942

The Allies were victorious in the Battle of Bloody Ridge on Guadalcanal (also known as the Battle of Edson’s Ridge), a land battle of the Pacific campaign between the Imperial Japanese Army and Allied ground forces, which started on September 12 and ended on September 14.

September 13, 1942

The Battle of Stalingrad began, in which the Axis powers of Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad in Southern Russia.

September 15, 1942

The U.S. Navy’s aircraft carrier USS Wasp and destroyer USS O’Brien were sunk and the battleship USS North Carolina was damaged when they were torpedoed by a Japanese submarine near the Solomon Islands.

September 17, 1942

Colonel Leslie Groves, a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers officer, was assigned the command of the Manhattan Project.

September 18, 1942

Food rations were reduced for Jews in Germany.

September 21, 1942

The Boeing B-29 Superfortress, a high-altitude long-range bomber, was manufactured in four main-assembly factories: two Boeing operated plants at Renton, Washington and Wichita, Kansas, a Bell Aircraft Corporation plant at Marietta, Georgia near Atlanta (“Bell-Atlanta”), and a Martin plant at Omaha, Nebraska. On September 21, the first prototype B-29 made its maiden flight from Boeing Field, Seattle.

[My Aunt Janet – my dad George Edwin Farrar’s sister – worked at Bell-Atlanta starting in March 1943.]

September 26, 1942

The Nazi SS began liquidating possessions and valuables confiscated from Jews who had been deported to the Auschwitz and Majdanek concentration and extermination camps. German currency was sent to the Reichs Bank. Foreign currency, gold, jewelry, and other valuables were sent to the SS Headquarters of the Economic Administration. Watches, clocks and pens were given to Nazi troops. Clothing was even distributed to the German public.

Sources:

This series of posts is based on a compilation of timelines from:

The Holocaust Encyclopedia

The History Place:

The National WWII Museum Interactive Timeline

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

World War II Chronicle by the Editors of Publications International, Ltd.

The First Battle of El Alamein

Anne Frank

Manhattan Project

Moscow Conference of 1942

USAAF’s First Attack on Occupied Europe

Lookout Air Raids

Most recent post from the series:

Spring 1942

© Cindy Farrar Bryan and The Arrowhead Club, 2020

George Farrar, Lawrence Newbold, and Christmas 1944

During WWII, my dad, George Edwin Farrar, was a waist gunner on a B-17 crew of the 384th Bomb Group of the United States Army Air Forces’ (USAAF) 8th Air Force. The 384th was based in Grafton Underwood, England. Dad was “Ed” to family, but in the Army Air Forces, he was known as “George.”

During the war, Lawrence Newbold was a wireless operator on an Avro Lancaster crew of the 50 Squadron of the British Royal Air Force (RAF). The 50 Squadron was based in Skellingthorpe, England. He was also known as “Lawrie” and signed a letter to my father as such (although I originally read it as “Laurie.”)

While the British Royal Air Force flew night bombing missions over Germany during WWII, the US Army Air Forces flew daytime missions. The result was constant, continuous bombardment against the Nazis in the European Theater.

On the night of March 18, 1944, Lawrence Newbold’s 50 Squadron took part in a mission to Frankfurt, Germany. In the course of the mission, his Lancaster was shot down and Lawrence bailed out over Germany. After interrogation, he was likely first confined to the Stalag Luft VI prison camp near the town of Heydekrug, Memelland (now Šilutė in Lithuania), although I am not certain that was his original camp.

In July 1944, the POW’s of Stalag Luft VI were moved to the Stalag Luft IV prison camp in Gross Tychow, Pomerania (now Tychowo, Poland), which had opened in May. Whether Lawrence was one of the prisoners who endured the dreadful transfer from Stalag Luft VI to IV, via crammed railroad boxcars, the dismal hold of a ship, and the torturous “run up the road” (also known as the “Heydekrug Run” – more on this subject at a later date), I do not know, but I do know at the time he was captured, Stalag Luft IV was not yet open and he was transferred there sometime on or after the opening in May 1944.

On the morning of September 28, 1944, George Farrar’s 384th Bomb Group took part in a mission to Magdeburg, Germany. Coming off the target, another of the group’s B-17’s collided with George’s. George, who was luckily wearing his parachute, was thrown from the aircraft which had split in two in the collision. After interrogation and a lengthy hospital stay, he was confined to Stalag Luft IV in late November, around Thanksgiving.

Lawrence and George were assigned to Room 12 of an unknown barracks and lager of Stalag Luft IV. Within weeks the newfound roommates would spend Christmas 1944 together. Lawrence undoubtedly would like to have been home to spend Christmas with his wife Marjorie and their son Michael, and George was likely dreaming of Christmas with his parents and eight siblings.

In a Christmas POW postcard to his mother, George wrote,

Hope everyone had a nice Christmas.  We had as good as can be expected here.

I often think of how alone and scared my dad must have been at Christmas 1944 in a prison camp with no family to comfort him. But this year I have a new perspective. This Christmas is the 75th anniversary of the Christmas Dad spent in Stalag Luft IV and I will think of it as the Christmas Dad spent with Lawrence Newbold and his POW family of “Room 12.”

This year is special because Stephen Newbold, the son of Lawrence Newbold, and I, the daughter of George Farrar, met for the first time. When I was in England for the 384th Bomb Group reunion in September, Steve and his son, Paul, and I met in the village of Grafton Underwood, where Dad’s 384th Bomb Group’s airbase was located.

Paul Newbold, Cindy Bryan, and Steve Newbold

Dad would never have believed that seventy-five years after he and Lawrence Newbold endured the horrors of imprisonment in Stalag Luft IV and the 86-day 500-mile march to liberation during WWII, their descendants would have the opportunity to meet. At our meeting, the connection was instantaneous. I predict our friendship will be long lasting and I look forward to a future visit to England which must include meeting more of Lawrence Newbold’s descendants.

Even though George and Lawrence are both gone now, our pride in the sacrifices they made for us seventy-five years ago will live on through their children, grandchildren, and many generations to come.

On this 75th anniversary of the Christmas George and Lawrence spent together in 1944, to my newfound friends, Steve and Paul Newbold, and the Newbold family members I have yet to meet, I wish you all a very Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year.

© Cindy Farrar Bryan and The Arrowhead Club, 2019

WWII Timeline – Spring 1942

I’m continuing my WWII Timeline series with a look at April – June 1942 in this post.

A Timeline of WWII, Spring 1942

April 1942

The first transports of Jews arrived at the Majdanek concentration and extermination camp, which was built and operated by the SS on the outskirts of the city of Lublin in German-occupied Poland.

April 1, 1942

The internment of Japanese Americans began. 

April 3, 1942

The Japanese attacked American and Filipino troops at Bataan.

April 6, 1942

The first U.S. troops arrived in Australia.

April 9, 1942

U.S. forces on Bataan surrendered unconditionally to the Japanese.

April 10, 1942

The Bataan Death March of 60,000 to 80,000 Allied POWs (American and Filipino) began. They were forced to walk sixty to seventy miles under intense heat, with no food or water, and subjected to harsh treatment by the Japanese, to prison camps. They were divided into groups of one hundred and the march took each group about five days to complete. Many thousands perished.

April 18, 1942

Lieutenant Colonel James Doolittle (later General of the United States Army Air Forces) led the first U.S. bombing attack on Japan off the aircraft carrier USS Hornet. The air raid became known as the Doolittle’s Tokyo Raid.

April 20, 1942

German Jews were banned from using public transportation.

April 23, 1942

German air raids began against cathedral cities in Britain.

April 26, 1942

The Reichstag unanimously passed a decree proclaiming Hitler “Supreme Judge of the German People.” The decree officially allowed Hitler to act outside the laws of the Reich, to override the judiciary and administration in all matters, making him the final decision-maker, with the power of life and death over every German citizen.

April 29, 1942

The Japanese took central Burma.

May 1942

The Sobibor extermination camp in German-occupied Poland became operational. It had three gas chambers initially using carbon monoxide piped in from engines, but later was switched over to Zyklon-B gas.

May 1, 1942

The Japanese occupied Mandalay in Burma.

May 3, 1942

The Japanese took Tulagi in the Solomon Islands.

May 4 – 8, 1942

A major naval battle called the “Battle of the Coral Sea” was fought between the Imperial Japanese Navy and naval and air forces of the United States and Australia. Japan claimed a tactical victory since they sunk the American aircraft carrier USS Lexington, but the Japanese were not able to seize New Guinea and isolate Australia.

The Allies won a strategic victory in the Battle of the Coral Sea. It was the first time in history that two opposing aircraft carrier forces fought only using aircraft without the opposing ships ever sighting each other.

The final resting place of the USS Lexington was found March 4, 2018, more than five hundred miles off the coast of Australia seventy-six years after it was sunk in the battle.

May 5, 1942

The Japanese prepared to invade Midway and the Aleutian Islands.

May 6, 1942

The Japanese took Corregidor Island, an island located at the entrance of Manila Bay in the Philippines, as General Jonathan M. Wainwright unconditionally surrendered all U.S. and Filipino forces in the Philippines to the Empire of Japan.

May 8, 1942

The German summer offensive began in the Crimea.

May 12, 1942

The last U.S. troop holdouts in the Philippines surrendered on Mindanao.

May 15, 1942

Gasoline rationing began in the U.S.

May 18, 1942

An article included on an inside page of the New York Times reported that Nazis had exterminated over 100,000 Jews in the Baltic states, 100,000 in Poland and twice as many in western Russia by machine gun.

May 20, 1942

The Japanese completed the capture of Burma and reached India.

May 26, 1942

German General Erwin Rommel began an offensive against the Gazala Line (west of the port of Tobruk in Libya).

May 27, 1942

Czech resistance underground agents shot Reich Protector/SS Leader Reinhard Heydrich in Prague. In retaliation, all 152 members of a student group that had displayed anti-Nazi posters in Berlin on May 18, were shot.

May 30, 1942

The British RAF (Royal Air Force) launched a thousand-bomber air raid against Cologne (Köln), Germany.

June 1942 

Gas vans were used in Riga, Latvia’s capital on the Baltic Sea. Victims were sealed inside the vans and choked to death through carbon monoxide poisoning.

June 1, 1942

The Luftwaffe (German Air Force) inflicted heavy damage on Canterbury, England.

Jews in France, Holland, Belgium, Croatia, Slovakia, and Romania were ordered to wear the yellow Star of David badge.

The mass murder of Jews by gassing began at the Auschwitz extermination camp.

June 4, 1942

Reich Protector/SS Leader Reinhard Heydrich, shot May 27 by the Czech resistance in Prague, died of his wounds.

June 4-5, 1942

The British Navy and American Navy stopped the Japanese naval advance in the central Pacific at Midway. The Allied victory was the turning point in the war in the Pacific. Squadrons of U.S. torpedo planes and dive bombers from the USS Enterprise, USS Hornet, and USS Yorktown attacked and destroyed four Japanese aircraft carriers, a cruiser, and damaged another cruiser and two destroyers. The U.S. lost the Yorktown.

June 5, 1942

The Germans overwhelmed Sevastopol, a port in the Crimea on the Black Sea, in a campaign fought by the Axis powers of Germany and Romania against the Soviet Union for control of the port.

The Nazi SS reported 97,000 persons “processed” in mobile gas vans.

June 6-7, 1942

Japanese forces invaded the Aleutian Islands of Kiska and Attu.

June 9, 1942

The Japanese postponed further plans to take Midway.

June 10, 1942

The Nazis liquidated the Czech town of Lidice as a reprisal for Reinhard Heydrich’s killing in Prague. In addition to the Gestapo and SS killings of Czech agents, resistance members, and anyone suspected of being involved in Heydrich’s death (totaling over 1000 persons), the deportation of 3000 Jews from the ghetto at Theresienstadt for extermination, and the arrest in Berlin of 500 Jews, with 152 executed as a reprisal, Hitler ordered the small Czech mining village of Lidice to be liquidated on the fake charge that it had aided Heydrich’s assassins.

All 172 men and boys over age 16 in the village were shot. The women of Lidice were deported to Ravensbrück concentration camp where most died. Ninety young children were sent to the concentration camp at Gneisenau, although some deemed to be German-looking were later taken to Nazi orphanages.

The buildings in Lidice were destroyed by explosives until the village was completely leveled and not a trace remained. The soil was planted over and the village’s name removed from all German maps.

June 11, 1942

SS leader Adolf Eichmann met with representatives from France, Belgium and Holland to coordinate deportation plans for Jews.

June 21, 1942

German General Erwin Rommel captured Tobruk in Libya.

June 25, 1942

General Dwight D. Eisenhower arrived in London and took control of U.S. forces in Europe.

June 28, 1942–September 1942

German troops and Axis partners fought their way into Stalingrad (Volgograd) on the Volga River in the Soviet Union by mid-September. They secured the Crimean Peninsula and made their way deep into the Caucasus, an area situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.

June 30, 1942

German General Erwin Rommel reached El Alamein near Cairo, Egypt.

The second gas chamber at Auschwitz known as Bunker II (the white farmhouse) was made operational at Birkenau due to the arrival of a large number of Jews.

June 30 (and July 2), 1942

The New York Times reported via the London Daily Telegraph that over 1,000,000 Jews had been killed by the Nazis. The story may have been the result of information passed to London and Washington in the Summer of 1942 by Swiss representatives of the World Jewish Congress regarding information they received from a German industrialist of the Nazi plan to exterminate the Jews.

Sources:

This series of posts is based on a compilation of timelines from:

The Holocaust Encyclopedia

The History Place:

The National WWII Museum Interactive Timeline

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

World War II Chronicle by the Editors of Publications International, Ltd.

Bataan Death March

The Liquidation of Lidice

Nazi Germany Reichstag

USS Lexington Found

Most recent post from the series:

Winter 1942

© Cindy Farrar Bryan and The Arrowhead Club, 2019

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